Wednesday, July 31, 2019

The Development of Tourism Around Certain Key Wildlife Species Can Be Problematic. Evaluate Strategies Which Are Used, Around the World, to Seek a Working Balance in the Nature-People Relationship?

9. The development of tourism around certain key wildlife species can be problematic. Evaluate strategies which are used, around the world, to seek a working balance in the Nature-People relationship? Tourism is the world’s largest industry with nature-based ecotourism seeing rapid growth since its initial arrival in the 1980s. It is estimated by the World Tourism Organisation that nature tourism generates 7% of all international travel expenditure (Lindberg, 1997) and this figure will have increased rapidly over recent years.It’s increase in popularity is due to a number of factors; tourists becoming increasingly bored of the typical sun, sea and sand holiday’s, the increase in global awareness or environmental issues such as global warming, deforestation and conservation efforts. Ecotourism has the ability through its economic benefits to increase conservation, improve the economic well-being of local communities and national governments and educate people on t he threats facing fragile environments around the world. However, ecotourism is not without its drawbacks and ill-managed and uncontrolled tourism can impact badly on wildlife and protected areas.In this assignment I will aim to look at the relationship between people and ecotourism and analyse the benefits and weaknesses that they both have on each other. The most prominent thing which springs to mind with regard to nature tourism for most people would be safaris in Africa aiming at spotting the ‘Big 5’ (African Elephant, Black Rhinoceros, Cape Buffalo, Lion & Leopard). The term was originally coined by hunters but now it is applied widely in tourism. ‘Africans safaris are one of the fastest growing segments of the travel market’ (Wildlife Travel, 2006).Approximately 8% of Kenya is protected National Parks and reserves and these areas are responsible for generating millions of pounds annually for the treasury, and literally thousands of Kenyans are employe d in the wildlife-based tourism industry throughout the country (Sindiga, 1999). This means that many parts of Africa have been able to develop a sustainable part of the economy based around protecting and conserving the animals which they have for tourists benefit as opposed to in the past, where the predominant form of tourism was in hunting these animals.However now the money received from tourism can be used to increase conservation efforts and aid breeding programs and the rehabilitation of neglected animals. However, in some instances the companies which run the safaris have their headquarters located in other more economically developed countries therefore the money raised by the African land leaves the host country to other countries and therefore it is not helping Africa become more economically developed.The most distinguished nature reserve in Africa is the Masai Mara Nature Reserve in Kenya. Tourist accommodation first started being developed after the reserve was gazett ed in 1963. The initial effort enforced by the reserve to ensure the animals are not disturbed and parks preserved whilst tourists visit them is issuing all visitors and guides with a printed leaflet outlining the regulations which must be abided by whilst in the reserve and these are listed in figure 1.Infringement of these regulations carries a $25 fine, although it is rarely applied (Wildlife and People, 1999) †¢ No off-road driving. †¢ No following of animals. †¢ Minimum approach distance of 20m to an animal. †¢ Limit of five vehicles at any one viewing. †¢ Limit of 10 minutes viewing when other vehicles are waiting to view. †¢ Maximum speed limit of 50km/hr. †¢ No deliberate use of noise to distract wildlife. †¢ No leaning out of vehicles (except roof hatches) and no getting out of vehicles. †¢ No dropping litter. †¢ No pets. †¢ No starting fires. Figure 1A study conducted to see how many visitors broke these rules suggeste d that regulations were broken in over 90% of cases, with the main infringement being too many vehicles around animals and driving too close to the animals (Wildlife and people, 2003). Obviously, it is very hard to enforce these rules as guides and tourists want to get the closest possible encounter due to them having to forgo large amounts of financial expenditure for the experience and in the guides opinion the happier a visitor is the more likely they are to receive repeat business in the future or positive word of outh advertising. Also the increasing number of vehicles in safari parks increases pollution and can cause a distraction for hunting animals and disturb the prey which they are stalking as these animals have adapted their hunting tactics over thousands of years and they now have a relatively new factor to adapt to. However, in some instances the vehicles can be beneficial as for the cheetah who have been known to jump up on the roofs of vehicles in order to get a bette r view of where there prey is. Big Cat Week, 2010) Construction of tourist facilities may increase the amount of jobs available to local people however it does also mean that more land is lost for natural habitats and although it is a necessary harm which is needed to increase economic activity there are few regulations on how much land can be used for new buildings and the removal of vegetation can increase soil erosion (Safariholidays 2011).Africa has a very delicate eco system which is highly vulnerable to drought and famine so although the benefits of tourism mean increasing sustainability in the long run it must be ensured that the locals receive some of the benefits because it is their land which is being developed for the benefits of tourists.This is heightened by the fact about the large amounts of water is used during tourism activities whether it be for regular showers which westerners are accustomed to or filling numerous swimming pools up continuously to counter the effe cts of evaporation due to the fact that water is a scarce commodity in many parts of Africa and tourists are consuming large amounts of it taking it away from the animals and people who depend on it.The safari industry also helps to improve the relationship between local farmers and big cats such as cheetahs due to the fact that farmers will kill animals which prey on the herds, normally out of desperation due to the fact that they are considered a pest however increasing awareness of how other local residents depend on the survival of the big cats for tourism has lead more farmers to report incidents of attacks to reserves and safaris as opposed to laying out meat laced with poison.On a different side of things which focuses more on the illegal benefits made from poaching animals eco-tourism now exists in Madagascar where adventurers pay local guides to lead tour groups through reserves, finding and pointing out the rare and hard-to-spot species of wildlife which the tourists have come to see. The guides track the animals every day and therefore have a better understanding of where to find them at different times.This is a very effective tourism as it puts money directly into the locals peoples pockets and there is no middle men in the process so much so that it can worth while to prevent other local residents from hunting the animals concerned or cutting trees for firewood. (Ralf Buckley, 2010 page 50). This is a perfect job for many local residents who have extensive knowledge of the jungle through growing up their with many people getting a large amount of their meat through before hunting in the jungle can now receive an alternate way to make money through hosting guides.However, it could be suggested that the money received from tourism is not enough to sustain locals due to the face that one individual involved in wild life tourism in Madagascar was involved in poaching wildlife for the black market and also claimed to be able to guide tourist groups to sightings of two rare Madagascar endemic species; the tomato frog and the aye-aye lemur. In which it is reported that suspicion that the animals were captive animals placed in sports shortly before tourists arrival and then recaptured afterwards (Ralf Buckley, 2010, page 51).This is obviously very stressful for the animals involved and the tourists are unknowingly funding a harmful form of tourism however without the proper regulation in place to ensure tour guides are responsible there is no easy way of stopping this as tourists are always going to be attracted to guides who promise to show tourists guaranteed sightings of rare species of animals. As at the moment it would seem some ‘guides’ are taking advantage of the animals they are suppose to help to protect.In conclusion I would say that eco-tourism is constantly moving forward, having switched from mainly hunting in Africa in the 1960’s to now numerous sustainable Safaris all over Africa and with complete ly new eco-tourism destinations, such as Madagascar becoming more and more popular helping the country develop a whole new economy through the emergence of eco-tourism. There are obviously faults in the industry, just like most other industries.The main one in Africa would be the fact that much of the money raised by the host countries leaves to western countries and the local people see little benefit from having their land developed for tourism and preserved for the safety of animals as if this land was not used in this way it would most likely be used by the local people for some form of farming. The main thing which needs to change now is for the distribution of wealth to be more fair and even between the companies and the local people.And it would seem the main disadvantage for Madagascar being the lack of regulation, which enables corruption within the industry. 1505 words References Lindberg, K. , Furze. , Staff, M. , Black, R. (1997) Ecotourism in the Asia-Pacific Region: Is sues and Outlook. Burlington, VT. The International Ecotourism Society. Ian Proctor. (2006). â€Å"Is an African Safari Safe? â€Å". Available: http://www. wildlifetravel. net/african%20safari%20advice. htm. Last accessed 20/03/2012. n/a. (2011). Negative Impacts of Safari Tourism. Available: http://safariholidays. ikispaces. com/Disadvantages+of+Safari+tourism. Last accessed 20/03/2012. Ralf Buckley (2010). Conservation Tourism. Oxfordshire, England: CABI Pulishing. page 51. Sindiga, I. (1999) Tourism and African Development: change and challenge of tourism in Kenya. African Studies Centre, Lieden. Walpole, M. J. , Karanja, G. G. , Sitati, N. W.. (2003). Wildlife and People: Conflict & Conservation in Masai Mara, Kenya. Available: http://www. peopleandwildlife. org. uk/publications/CONFLICT%20w_and_p_masaimara. pdf. Last accessed 22. 03. 2012.

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Literature Review: Foreign Maid

The problem of maid abuse has been around for a long time, and is no longer new to us. There have been several cases of extreme maid abuse shown in the news through the years. The debate has been further sparked up by the case of Ng Hua Chye, a 47-year-old male tour guide, who was sentenced to more than 18 years' jail and 12 strokes of the cane for manslaughter after his Indonesian maid died following nine months of beatings which left more than 200 injuries. However, these are cases are only a few out of the many that have yet to be uncovered. Are there better ways to improve the working standards of maids? This review aims to look into this problem through the comparison and analysis of several sources that we have managed to get our hands on. This review aims to identify the problems faced by foreign domestic workers in Singapore, whether maid abuse is indeed widespread, and finally what are the possible measures that can be taken to curb these problems effectively. Is maid abuse a widespread problem in Singapore? Cases of maid abuse are hard to track. ‘Given their isolation in private homes, it is difficult to ascertain the exact proportion of migrant domestic workers who face abuse. (Human Rights Watch) However, an independent poll by SIngapore Press Holdings in Dec 2003, revealed that ‘over 80% of FDWs were happy to work in Singapore. ’ (Getforme) This leaves us with a question: Are the statistics given by the government accurate in evaluating the problem of maid abuse? It can be further argued that the results of the polls are not representative of the whole for eign domestic workers population at large. Moreover, most foreign domestic workers who are abused would not be outside answering interviews by the government. Thus, the results of the polls are not accurate in showing the problem of maid abuse in Singapore. Of course, abuse is definitely not confined to serious physical abuse only. ‘â€Å"We only know about the extreme cases of abuse,† [TWC2 member Constance Singam] said, citing everyday practices like getting maids to wash the car, work long hours and wake up to feed someone coming home late. Employers also keep passports and withhold wages. ’ This goes to show that mundane forms of maid abuse and general ill treatment of maids are left unnoticed. As quoted by TWC2 (The Working Committee 2) member Constance Singam, â€Å"Physical abuse was only the tip of the iceberg, with the mundane problems of the domestic workers largely ignored. † This statement is further supported by reports which show stunning statistics. ‘Out of 147 cases of abuse [The Working Committee 2] studied, 68 percent involved physical injuries. ’ Physical abuse is rampant amongst cases of maid abuse, while there is also a large portion of foreign domestics workers in Singapore that suffer other ‘mundane types of abuse’. Thus, we can conclude from the evidence given above that maid abuse is indeed a widespread problem in the Singapore society. Problems that foreign domestic workers (FDWs) face Maids in Singapore face many problems, as asserted by the HRW. Women migrant domestic workers in Singapore suffer grave abuses ‘including physical and sexual violence, food deprivation, and confinement in the workplace. ’, ‘Migrant domestic workers earn half the wages of Singaporean workers in similar occupations, such as cleaners or gardeners. Unpaid wages is a growing complaint. And that ‘authorities have excluded domestic workers from the country's main labor laws. ’ (HRW) However, Getforme disagrees by saying, ‘Foreign domestic workers receive full protection under Singapore’s laws, including the Employment of Foreign Workers Act. All employers must provide adequate rest and meals and ensure work safety, proper housing and prompt salary payment. ’ (Getform e) Although it is evident that the Singapore government has tried to protect the welfare of foreign domestic workers, whether employers and employment agencies will follow suit is a different case. Studies conducted by the Human Rights Watch have shown that foreign domestic workers have more problems that do not meet our eyes. As quoted by the HRW, ‘key labor conditions, such as wages, hours of work, and salary deductions are left to employers and agencies, while domestic workers have little or no bargaining power. ’ Foreign domestic workers in Singapore also suffer from economic problems. Apart from physical abuse by their employers, many of them have to pay huge debts to the employment agencies. HRW shows this problem in its article, ‘Many domestic workers labor without pay for months to settle debts to employment agencies,’ Second, many of these FDWs lost their freedom as they were ‘confined to their workplace’, claimed HRW. Some employers prevent domestic workers from having weekly rest days, forbid them from talking to neighbors, and sometimes lock them in the workplace to prevent them from running away or having boyfriends. All these facts disagree with the Ministry of Manpower, which states that all employers must provide adequate rest and meals and ensure work safety, proper housing and prompt salary payment. Ultimately, it does not matter what the government does, as the people who have actual contact with the FDWs are the employers and the employment agencies, who are often the ones to make lives difficult for FDWs. Therefore, we do not believe it wrong to say that the problems that domestic workers face are indeed very serious. Solutions to curb maid abuse So, what are ways that can curb the problem of maid abuse more efficiently and improve the standards of working maids? There are some resolutions stated in our sources, while there are conflicting views at the same time. The HRW proposes that Singapore follow the example of Hong Kong in terms of their treatment of FDWs, ‘where the law stipulates a minimum wage and at least one rest day a week, the Singapore government does not provide a standard contract for maids. ’ (TWC2) However the Ministry disagrees with this arrangement as it is impractical to lay down minimum standards of working conditions due to the FDWs’ ‘unique nature of employment’ in households. Moreover, the introduction of such a standard will ‘inconvenience many households’, for example households with the elderly and need constant care from the domestic workers. However, the MOM has indeed taken several measures to protect the welfare of domestic workers. These include creating mandatory orientation programs for employers and domestic workers, prosecuting cases of unpaid wages and physical abuse, as well as introducing an accreditation program for employment agencies. The MOM has paid particular attention to the rosecution of cases involving unpaid wages and physical abuse. Employers who breach work permit conditions can be punished with a fine of up to $5,000 and a jail term of up to 6 months as quoted by the MOM. Also, employment agencies are to ensure that employers are to have at least 8 years of education such that they understand ‘[FDW’s] rights and protection provided under Singapore law. ’ Therefore, it will be very wrong to say t hat the Singapore government has not provided with measures to curb the problem of maid abuse. However, are these measures enough to curb maid abuse? Although, the cases of maid abuse have been decreasing, the cases have become more serious. The Ng Hua Chye case happened after the Singapore government enforced stricter penalties. Moreover, there is no way to be sure that the employers and employment agencies do know if households are going by the law. A ministry spokesman said that as domestic workers ‘work in a home environment, which varies from household to household, it would be difficult to enforce any coverage under the Employment Act. ’ Thus, it is clear to us that prosecution is not enough to solve the problem. Certain governmental policies which pertain to FDW and their employers, act as double-edged swords. They could be changed or abolished for the better lives of maids in Singapore. A fine example of such a policy would be the S$5,000 security bond imposed on employers who hire migrant workers. Purposed to control illegal immigration as well as to ensure employers have sufficient money to pay their maids their due salaries during their employment period, this policy directly led to employer’s restricting their migrant workers’ movements, as they will have to forfeit S$5,000 if their maids run away. Some employers even go to the extent to give their maids no weekly rest days and limited freedom of movement (e. g. locking them up at home). Other policies such as the monthly levy of approximately S$200-295 which employers of domestic workers have to pay also directly or indirectly result in the deprivation of the rights of migrant workers. In this case, not a cent from the money collected by the Singapore government in a stated attempt to regulate unskilled labor migration is used to provide better services for the migrant workers. Thus, modifying governmental policies for the benefit of FDW can also serve as a potential solution. Conclusion In conclusion, the problem of maid abuse is widespread in our society, as domestic workers in Singapore suffer from a variety of abuses and problem, ranging from physical abuse to financial problems. However, governmental policies are not effective enough to curb the problem of maid abuse, as it is difficult to enforce the law in every household. Moreover, laws are to protect the interests of victims, not just to punish those who broke the law. Thus, more actions has to be done to solve the problem as it has been proved that deterrence is not exactly effective enough to protect the welfare of domestic workers. Therefore, we believe that the problem of maid abuse is serious, that domestic workers do face many problems, and that governmental policies are effective in solving these problems only to a small extent. References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Monday, July 29, 2019

Argumentative Essay: Abortion

English 101 9 Dec 2010 The End before the Beginning Is abortion murder? Should abortion be illegal? Abortion is something that is not overlooked, but not exactly given the proper attention it should have. Abortion causes a lot chaos today. Abortion is a process where the mother kills the fetus. Sometimes there are understandable reasons for these actions, but then some women feel they aren’t ready to be a mother. If abortion wasn’t an option then what would the women do? How could they get rid†¦ Discursive essay - Abortion Abortion is a process viewed differently throughout the world. Usually happening in the first twenty four weeks. It is the process in which a pregnancy is terminated some of the reasons why people can have very different opinions on the topic is due to the religion they follow, the morals they believe in or the background they come from. It is certainly true that there are varied types of abortion. The type received depends on how far along the pregnancy is. One type†¦ Argumentative Essay 5 I should have focused more on my grades this year. By attending many social events, waiting until the last minute to complete work, and refusing to study my grades began to drop. I feel that if I would have put more effort into my school work I would have achieved the grades I am capable of getting. By hanging out with friends and putting off work my grades gradually began to drop. Your senior year is not the year to slack off in; it would have better prepared me for college†¦ Argumentative Essay Should we always tell the truth? Do you always tell the truth or lies? You are not likely to reply immediately because this question is very extreme. While we live, we cannot always tell the truth, and we also cannot always tell lies. May be, it will depend on the situation that you encountered. There are innumerable reasons why most people tell lies to others. Usually, we tell lies to hide own fault or show off ourselves. There are a little bit different lies, of course†¦ Argu1nentative Essays Mani stones, Nepal An argumentative essay is an essay in which you agree or disagree with an issue, using reasons to support your opinion. Your goal is to convince your reader that your opinion is right. Argumentation is a popular kind of essay question because it forces students to think on their own: They have to take a stand on an issue, support their stand with solid reasons, and support their reasons with solid evidence. In a general writing test such as the TOEFL†¦ Evaluation Essay Argumentative essays work to convince an audience that the writer 's point of view on a subject is the correct one, and to persuade the audience to agree with the author’s viewpoint. The author must provide evidence and appeal to his or her readers. â€Å"Parents Should Be Allowed to Control What Kids Watch†, an article by Leland Y. Yee is an argumentative essay explaining why parents should monitor the games their kids play and the TV shows they watch, and the consequences of not doing†¦ Argumentative Essay Planned Parenthood Millions of women across America will struggle to receive the medical attention they need if the federal government stops funding to Planned Parenthood. Every year 363 million dollars goes into the funding â€Å"pot† collectively at Planned Parenthood’s nationwide (Clark 5). This money is used predominantly by women; for six in ten women, Planned Parenthood acts as their main source of health care (Clark 4). Many individuals with low incomes depend on these clinics†¦ Argumentative Essay The function of an argumentative essay is to show that your assertion (opinion, theory, and hypothesis) about some phenomenon or phenomena is correct or more truthful than others'. The art of argumentation is not an easy skill to acquire. Many people might think that if one simply has an opinion, one can argue it successfully, and these folks are always surprised when others don't agree with them because their logic seems so correct. Argumentative writing is the act of forming†¦ Argumentative Essay Braden Rawson Social Networking or the use of specific websites or applications to interact with other users is one of the many key and driving factors today in our world. We find ourselves lost for many minutes or possibly hours at a time on any particular app or website. Looking deeper into the issue of social networking and its impact on our life, I highly doubt we have accomplished anything at all. A very smart man once said, â€Å"Time is money.† If that quote is true do we†¦ Mary Townsend Med. Lit. Mrs. Averbeck February 27, 2016 On January 22, 1973 the United States Supreme Court made a 7 - 2 decision to legalize abortion in most of the fifty states. Although abortion was not legal in the past it was being preformed on women since the fifteenth century all over the globe, but, most women did not survive the surgery. That is the biggest reason it was preformed in secret because it was taking so many lives. Thanks to modern day medicine and technology the success†¦

Strategic Account for Decision Making Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Strategic Account for Decision Making - Essay Example These are assessed in order. It is evident that BPC is performing better in both. The margins indicate that FF(Cardiff) has still some more opportunities to cut down costs and increase the margin by about 2%. This is also substantiated by the Expenses/Sales ratio (90% to 92%). However, FF(Cardiff) uses about  £41 ( £319 -  £278) more to generate  £1000 sales, i.e., the asset turnover rate is lesser in FF(Cardiff). This is a significant difference and so, FF(Cardiff) has to take some action to optimize the use of assets. These figures indicate that FF(Cardiff) does not utilize both fixed and current assets to the optimum extent. The ratios indicate that there is a major problem with fixed assets, i.e., BPF utilizes about  £254 of fixed assets to generate sales of  £1000 whereas FF(Cardiff) takes about  £287 worth of fixed assets to generate  £1000 sales. This difference ( £33) indicates that the processes used by FF(Cardiff) are not efficient. The current assets too have a major impact on sales (41.7x to 33x). In order to estimate the extent to which each current asset contributes to the issue, the next three ratios (7, 8 and 9) are compared with those of the best performing club (BPC). The stock turnover period indicates that FF(Cardiff) is more efficient in moving the stock. However, FF(Cardiff) can improvise on debt collection period, since it takes 3.1 days for FF(Cardiff) to collect cash whereas BPF does it in 2.4 days. These figures indicate that FF(Cardiff) takes about (365/59) 6 days to convert cash in the bank to sales, whereas BPF takes about roughly (365/83.3) 4 days to convert cash to sales. This is a significant difference (2 days), but it is not of great importance. However, FF(Cardiff) can focus on reducing the cash in the bank and convert them to sales at a faster rate, as cash kept idle does not reap any profits. As far as the liquidity ratios are concerned, there is no much difference in the current ratios (1.8:1 and 1.7:1).     

Sunday, July 28, 2019

LAW OF EUROPEAN UNION. Discuss, with references to relevant EC Treaty Essay

LAW OF EUROPEAN UNION. Discuss, with references to relevant EC Treaty provisions and decided cases, whether or not a reference should be made in this case, and - Essay Example Article 234 of the EC Treaty provides a mechanism by which citiziens and bodies within the European Community may obtain clarification of Community law. In a typical case a question is referred to the European Court of Justice and the general puropose of Article 234 is to ensure that all laws within the European Community equally reflect Community law. In general Article 234 provides that the European Court of Justice will have the authority to â€Å"give preliminary rulings†1 with respect to: Article 234 goes on to provide that when â€Å"such a question is raised before any court of tribunal of a Member State,†3that court or tribunal may if it deems it necessary for the purpose of ruling in the matter before it, â€Å"request† a ruling from the ECJ.4 Moreover: â€Å"Where any such question is raised in a case pending before a court or tribunal of a Member State against whose decisions there is no judicial remedy under national law, that court or tribunal shall bring the matter before the Court of Justice.5 The result of Article 234 is the development and application of Community law. Principlay Article 234, the ECJ by deciding cases by way of references it rules on points of law and does not sit as an appellate court. In Foglia v Novella [1980) ECR 745 the ECJ ruled that it would only determine references arising out of genuine disputes and refused to accept a reference where a clause was inserted into a contract solely for the purpose of creating a legal challenge.6 In the case of Melicke v ADV/ORGA AG [1992] ECR I-4871 the ECJ refused a refence because it lacked specificity in the sense that the court was required to rule on a hypotheical bases. The ECJ ruled that it could not decide on the disputer because it did not have: The first issue for Jane is whether or not the Social Service Adjudicator presiding over Jane’s complaint is a proper body under

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Religion and Society Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words

Religion and Society - Essay Example United States where on one hand enjoy a multicultural society with religious pluralism; on the other hand it feels as if a threat has been developed in the name of secularization. However this must not be the case in a country where liberal secularization remains in the eye of the scholarly beholder and where the observer possesses the right to decide if a symbol or form has been transformed or not. In American society where religious institutions play an extensive role in the economic regulation, denominational organizations, churches, and religiously affiliated institutions at the same time they contribute substantially to the growth of the domestic and international economy. On one hand we consider America as a multi-religious society, while on the other we take into account those facts that create a link between religion and economy. In order to understand the connection between the two, one can first consider those developments that occur outside this domain i.e., economy in a à ¢â‚¬Ëœnon-religious’ environment. As with all socially significant categories, the reflection of religion upon any economy (stabilizing or destabilizing) depends to some extent on the difference between what counts as religion and what does not. For example, American society at the time of Reformation enjoyed a double compatibility in the name of religion. On the one hand, the visibility, power, and clearly religious identity of the Roman Catholic Church provided a concrete institutional model served the religion positively. On the other hand, however, early America witnessed a time when there was gradual development of other institutional domains that increasingly, over subsequent centuries, established themselves as independent of religious support and eventually even of religious legitimation (Dillon, 2003, p. 43). The development, which America has witnessed throughout centuries, resulted in a capitalist economy in which the sovereign political state emerged inclusive of the administrative and military arms. Such development was the result of multicultural spectrum, which was influenced by religiously, shaped society cultural and racial values, therefore the related domain of positive law, modern science, and later also academic education, medicalized health, art, mass media, and sport all developed. In this scenario the rise of two individual systems 'religious' and 'nonreligious' were critical for developing and treating religion as something distinct and different, therefore there was no option for a growing economy other than to include 'religion' on a broad spectrum in everyday lives of Americans. Not only did religion in this context appeared in contrast to other nonreligious social values, but it modelled itself to some extent in order to cover up all economic threats, therefore religi on also helped in institutional reconstruction. Now that the time has come religion in America has moulded itself in many social forms, it would not be wrong to acknowledge that the way religion has modernized American economy, has never happened in the past. An example is when decades ago, early American religious missionaries worked hard to retain their religious consensus and the moral values of the earlier world out of which they came. At the same time they were enthusiastic about new improvements in transportation and communication along with their entrepreneurial business mindedness in manufacturing and industrialization (Porterfield, 2001, p. 48). Relationship between social class and

Friday, July 26, 2019

Starbucks Companys Marketing Plan Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Starbucks Companys Marketing Plan - Essay Example The objectives are as follows: Starbucks is now a household name and is continuing to delve into other areas such as joining forces with large companies (Dreyers Grand Ice Cream, Pepsi-Cola, Hear Music, Tazo Tea Company, Kraft Foods, etc. to continue branching out. Euromonitor International : Global Company Profile (2004) reports,"It aims to position its outlet as customers "third place", a location where the customer feels able to relax free from the pressures of either work or home Starbucks's main objective is to establish Starbucks as the most recognised and respected brand in the world. To achieve this, the company plans to continue to rapidly expand its outlets, to grow retail sales of its bottled drinks and ice cream and introduce new products and expand distribution channels." By licensing agreement, it has joined forces with other huge businesses. By placing itself everywhere and developing customer loyalty by providing what they want and need (in many areas). Having customers who are loyal to a certain brand is the key to a company's success. When a company can obtain customers who are loyal to its brand, this is extremely advantageous as the customers are the ones who will do the advertising and the selling. The company does not have to work as hard. The advantages of positioning Starbucks as a lifestyle product and joining forces with other companies were many. Gaining a competitive advantage by not just selling a product but selling a community; a place where people could have a sense of belonging. By touching people's emotions, they were able to hit right at the heart, where people are moved, and decisions are easily made based on emotions and what touches them. Their customers were made to feel special and a part of an elite group surrounded by others like them as those who purchased the coffees, other products (such as holiday items), and music could share the same social lifestyle. It is more than just a mere cup of coffee that they were getting. It is a lifestyle, a community, a way of life, and the "customers' third location". In today's world, there

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Japanese Women in Meiji Period Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Japanese Women in Meiji Period - Essay Example Meiji era represents an age in Japanese history in which one substantial reform was carried out after the other for the progress of the Japanese society. Historians agree that the Meiji era in Japanese history presented a succession of large reforms that were to bring about an improvement in Japanese society. It appears that, although, the Meiji government did try to improve the situation for women in Japan, it could not alter fundamental influences. Thus, despite a movement towards emancipation, greater equality and freedom for women in Japan was to wait until the end of the war. It is clear, that although remnants of the Tokugawa thinking and fundamental influences from old Japan continued into the Meiji period, processes of reform and efforts for change accelerated into the Meiji era. A certain movement towards the greater emancipation of women in the Japanese society of the Meiji era is apparent. However, a pronounced change was only possible after the war when Japan was to surrender. Despite the reforms of the Meiji era, exploitation based on class differences, economic poverty and the inequality of the sexes had continued in Japan. A country in an era that had seen poor peasants selling their daughters to brothels without state intervention could not be an egalitarian society. Thus, a combination of factors related to tradition, economic inequality and class differences had resulted in a certain rebellion amongst some quarters. Although the Meiji government did try to improve the situation, it could not radically alter the inequalities in the society or change the Japanese mentality. Only a major revolution after the war made it possible for further positive change to occur.

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Gay Marriage Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 2

Gay Marriage - Essay Example Others believe that this is a fight for religious freedom, making their voices heard that â€Å"Gay marriage legislation threatens the very religious liberties we have fought so hard to maintain for centuries† (Ross 101). Perhaps, there is no more divisive a social issue today than gay marriage. In determining how America will move forward in this regard, the definition of love and marriage, the legal ramifications, and the effects on societal values must all be closely examined. Perhaps the strongest argument in support of gay marriage is that the government should not be permitted to legislate whom a person is permitted to love. Now, legislators will contend that laws are not designed to keep members of society from loving members of the same sex. If they choose to love and cohabitate with the same gender, however, the benefits of marriage will not be afforded to them. James Kellard points out that, â€Å"Conservatives do not argue that the US Constitution bans gay marriage , probably because the opposite is true† (98). ... Kellard points out, for example, â€Å"there are people who marry for money, non-sexual companionship, even health insurance† (99). The argument, therefore, can be made that marriage should not be denied to two consenting adults simply based on their sex, when opposite sex couples are equally (perhaps even more so) prone to getting married for reasons contrary to the traditional definition of marriage. The legal ramifications of this issue are far reaching. Interestingly, a movement began in this country back in the 1980s to rid society of discrimination against homosexuals. While you cannot force a person to change their heart and mindset towards a people group, laws can be enacted to protect groups of people. This is exactly what has taken place of the last 30 years. Gays and lesbians are now more protected in the workplace and hate crimes laws have been enacted, just to name a few. The fight for gay marriage truly began in Hawaii in 1991. Since that time, several states acr oss the country have enacted laws granting gays and lesbians the right to marry, while a host of others have specifically passed laws defining marriage as only between one man and one woman, thereby effectively barring gays and lesbians from taking part in this institution. As an answer to this issue at the federal level, the Defense of Marriage Act was passed in 1996. â€Å"This bill specified that all federal legislation dealing with marriage would refer solely to heterosexual marriages† (United States Congress 68). This essentially means that the federal government, for example, still does not recognize a legal marriage in the state of New York. The two sides are

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Strategic Business Alliances Article Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Strategic Business Alliances - Article Example Financial deals were cheap and this, coinciding with the idea that most companies had much cash at their disposal creates a conducive environment for alliance activity to pick up. Additionally, making business alliances aims at expanding business market share in the sense that the business would relieve a lot of pressure making them more flexible to react quickly to changes without the investors’ weight upon them. Business alliance can make customers’ interests in the current market might end up being shelved when the management set off to concentrate and develop emerging markets elsewhere. Though it can be argued that the administrative section of the company will increase their personnel to concentrate on these new markets, they might still need support from the current managers in terms of experience in tackling hurdles that may face them and thus their focus on management might be temporarily diluted. Whether the customers’ expectations and their products quality will remain at their previous desirable level or even increase in the process remains to be a litmus test for the company considering this acquisition is still in its infant stages. The society as a whole benefit from business alliance given that apart from creating new job openings from their expansion, they increase value for people’s money by not only increasing the variety of commodities but also bringing new competition that will prompt other players to increase their efficiency in serving the society.

HRM function Essay Example for Free

HRM function Essay Flexible working patterns have advantages and disadvantages that impact not only on individuals but also on the business and the economy as a whole. Although flexible working practices and part-time working provide opportunities for people may otherwise be excluded from the workplace, individuals can feel insecure in such employment, particularly if they are constantly working on short-term contracts. There is also evidence that part-time or flexible workers receive less training than their full-time counterparts. In these circumstances individuals can feel their contribution is undervalued. In turn, insecurities and frustrations experienced by part-time staff may affect their job satisfaction and, ultimately, their performance. This then impacts on the organisation, as it has to manage higher staff turnover rates. One solution that may overcome this is that if we think of our lives as inside-out doughnuts, with a core in the middle (the essentials of life) and the bounded space on the outside as our opportunities, workers can achieve satisfaction in other areas of our lives, even if the workers jobs are unfulfilling. APPENDICE 3 HRM plays a part in enabling Asda to improve its overall competitiveness in the market place. In the last decade of the twentieth century, we saw a transformation in the way companies like Asda started dealing with the people who were their employees. Instead of seeking to get the best out of people just for the sake of the business- i. e. to help it achieve its objectives- the new emphasis termed Human Resource Management (HRM) was that people would only work their best for the company if the company gave priority to identifying and seeking to meet the personal needs and objectives of its employees. This distinction is very subtle- but it is an important distinction to understand. A second important change in people management was a recognition that people work was not just the responsibility of the HR department. It is the responsibility of all managers in Asda- supported by HRM specialists. Increasingly, responsibility for recruitment, selection, appraisal and training is carried out by managers who work on an ongoing basis with employees rather than by a specialist in a centralised HRM function. A third key change in people management was that HRM was given a great deal more status in Asda. Instead of being something carried on at lower levels of the business, HRM is now recognised as a key strategic area of the business (i. e. one that needs to be given priority in organisational planning involving senior managers). Overall, HRM plays a vital part in Asda and many other businesses alike. If it recruits the right people with the skills and experience needed for the job, the business will run smoothly but if it doesnt then they will need to recruit some other people costing a lot of money for advertising, training, etc costing the business a high labour turnover rate. If it is to strive in the market place, not only does it need to meet the needs of the customers, but also of employees. If staff are motivated and incredibly fluent in their line of work, they would produce a quality service and production meaning that more people would want to shop at Asda.

Monday, July 22, 2019

Global Strategy of Sony Ericsson Essay Example for Free

Global Strategy of Sony Ericsson Essay In 2001, Sony Ericsson is established by the Japanese company Sony (a consumer electronics corporation) as a fifty-fifty joint venture with the Swedish telecommunications company Ericsson (a mobile communications infrastructure and systems business) which offers mobile phones, accessories and applications. Before the merger, its provides expertise in mobile communication, after the merger, its provide both the consumer electronics and content expertise. In 2011, Sony Ericsson changes their global strategy by focusing more on high end smartphones. At the same times, Sony Ericsson will focus on their key markets, which is including the U. S., Russia, China and Germany. The transaction gives Sony focus on high end smartphones product includes their accessories and application that will lead to profitability and the growth of its business. However, the company facing new challenges in this dynamic changing environment, aggressive competition will affect the global market share of the company and it revenue. In 2012, Sony Ericsson becomes an end when Sony’s announcement that it will acquired 50 percent stake in Sony Ericsson, changed its name to Sony Mobile Communications AB (SMEC) let Sony Ericsson becomes an affiliated company of Sony Corporation (Sony). Sony is a multinational corporation, one of the most leading brand and its functions as designing, manufacturing, marketing mobiles phones and its accessories. With the announcement of acquisition, it will be a brand new start for Sony Ericsson to embark within the Sony family, expanded their marketing activities. Sony Ericsson use outsourcing for the customer interaction centre is another global strategy. This customer interaction centre is established to solve and meet all customer requirements and their problems, and at the same time reducing their cost for expansion.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

The Decision-Making Process at Toyota

The Decision-Making Process at Toyota â€Å"The minor assessment is centred around Toyota’s annual report. Each student is expected to submit a case report, based also on the analysis of relevant background readings in addition to the case study itself, addressing the following issues:  · Explain what is meant by the term â€Å"decision-making† and analyse it in connection with the concepts of risk and uncertainty.  · Discuss the decision-making process at Toyota.  · Briefly analyse the automotive industry and explain how its dynamics influence Toyota’s managers in making decisions.  · Apply forecasting models to Toyota case study (e.g. provide a 2-year moving average graph using sales data).† Table of contents Introduction: The decision-making process 1 Risks and uncertainties in decision-making process 2 Case study: Decision-making process at Toyota 3 Automotive industry analysis 4 Influence of automotive industry in Toyota’s decision making process 5 Financial analysis 6 Forecasting model: 2-year moving average graph 7 Forecasting model: weighted moving average and exponential smoothing 8 Conclusion: Toyota heading towards Sustainable Growth 9 References and Sources 10 Introduction: The decision-making process We can define decision-making, as a conscious and human process, involving both individual and social phenomena, an ongoing process of evaluating alternatives for meeting an objective. A particular course of action to select that course of action most likely to result in attaining the objective. The decision-making process allow us to raise our vision beyond our immediate concerns and, in turn, allow us to evaluate our existing beliefs an actions in a new light in order to make an important and useful decision. Achieving an objective requires action leading to a desired outcome. In theory, how one proceeds should inevitably affect what one achieves, and in turn this should affect future actions. Risks and uncertainties in decision-making process The ability of a firm to absorb, transfer, and manage risk is critical in managements decision-making process when risky outcomes are involved. This will often define managements risk appetite and help to determine, once risks are identified and quantified, whether risky outcomes may be tolerated. For example, many financial risks can be absorbed or transferred through the use of a hedge, while legal risks might be mitigated through unique contract language. If managers believe that the firm is suited to absorb potential losses in the event the negative outcome occurs, they will have a larger appetite for risk given their capabilities to manage it. Managing uncertainty in decision-making relies on identifying, quantifying, and analyzing the factors that can affect outcomes. This enables managers to identify likely risks and their potential impact. Decision makers are used to assessing risk because decision-making is usually associated with some degree of risk taking, but not all outcomes are easily assessed. Some unknown outcomes may not previously have been seen or experienced and so they are uncertain. In theory the outcome may have a low probability to occur but if so would happen it could be troublesome. So it is important for every company, especially in ever changing and competitive markets to deal with risks using a ever-better decision-making process. All of the decisions anyhow are taken by individuals so the strategy for risk avoidance is tied in with a personal reference point. Of course it’s fundamental nowadays, for big corporations, to have extremely good employees in this department. The skills and needs of the decision-maker and the role of the decision within an organization, the importance of the risk analysis will depend on the objectives of the decision. A wise approach to decision-making might seek contributions from different angles. The importance placed on data analysis, management skills, organizational awareness, and custom and practice in the assessment of risk would be vital. In this field of course with any doubt Toyota is one of the finest players in the market, with a top notch decision-making process. Case study: Decision-making process at Toyota Automotive industry analysis The worldwide automotive market is highly competitive. Toyota faces intense competition from automotive manufacturers in the markets in which it operates. Although the global economy continues to recover gradually, competition in the automotive industry has further intensified among difficult overall market conditions. In addition, competition is likely to further intensify due to continuing globalization in the worldwide automotive industry, possibly resulting in further industry reorganization. Factors affecting competition include product quality and features, safety, reliability, fuel economy, the amount of time required for innovation and development, pricing, customer service and financing. Increased competition may lead to lower vehicle unit sales, which may result in a further downward price pressure and adversely affect Toyota’s financial condition and results of operations. Toyota’s ability to adequately respond to the recent rapid changes in the automotive ma rket and to maintain its competitiveness will be fundamental to its future success in existing and new markets and to maintain its market share. There can be no assurances that Toyota will be able to compete successfully in the future. That’s the risk connected with every business activity. Through this uncertainties Toyota has to deal with a top-notch management. Each of the markets in which Toyota competes has been subject to considerable volatility in demand, so the risk is becoming even higher year after year affecting all business decisions. Demand for vehicles depends on social, political and economic conditions in a given market and the introduction of new vehicles and technologies. As Toyota’s revenues are derived from sales in markets worldwide, economic conditions in such markets are particularly important to Toyota. In Japan, the economy gradually recovered due to increasing personal consumption and last-minute demand encouraged by the increase of the consumption tax. In the United States, the economy has seen constant gradual retrieval mainly due to increasing personal consumption and the European economy has shown signs of recovery too. In the meantime, growth in emerging markets slowed down due to weakening currencies of emerging markets, increases in interest rates of emerging markets to protect the local currencies, and political instability in some nations. The shifts in demand for automobiles is continuing, and it is unclear how this situation will transition in the future. Influence of automotive industry in Toyota’s decision making process Toyota’s future success depends on its ability to offer new innovative competitively products that meet customer demand on a timely basis. Their corporate DNA is headed to continuous innovation and ensure that tomorrow’s Toyota is even better than today’s. Toyota’s current management structure is based on the structure introduced in April 2011. In order to fulfill the Toyota Global Vision, Toyota reduced the Board of Directors and decision-making layers, changing the management process from the ground-up, facilitating rapid management decision-making. In April 2013, Toyota made organizational changes with the goal of additional increasing the speed of decision making by clarifying responsibilities for operations and earnings. In detail Toyota’s group divided the automotive business into the following four units —Lexus International (Lexus business); Toyota No. 1 (North America, Europe and Japan); Toyota No. 2 (China, Asia the Middle East, East Asia Oceania; Africa, Latin America the Caribbean); and Unit Center (engine, transmission, and other â€Å"unit†-related operations) Meeting customer demand by introducing attractive new vehicles and reducing the amount of time required for product development are critical to automotive producers. In particular, it is critical to meet customer demand with respect to quality, safety and reliability. The timely introduction of new vehicle models, at competitive prices, meeting rapidly changing customer preferences and demand is more fundamental to Toyota’s success than ever, as the automotive market is rapidly transforming in light of the changing global economy. Toyota has to be ready for every occasion to occur in this ever changing global economy. Toyota’s managers every year are taking under consideration every occasion to happen. Within a managerial decision-making context, a risk might be viewed as the chance of negative outcome for a decision which has a possible uncertainty element, usually on the downside. Financial Analysis In terms of finances, the carmaker boosted its profit forecast for the current fiscal year ending March, expecting net income to rise to 2.0 trillion yen ($16.97 billion, 14.7 billion euros). It also said revenue would come in at 26.5 trillion yen. Toyota Motor Corporation had revenues for the full year 2014 of 25.692tn. This was 16.44% above the prior years results. Regarding the competition between Toyota, Volkswagen and ford, top players in the market, Toyota is average a positive trend. Moreover Toyota has the highest income since the year 2009. Forecasting model: 2-year moving average graph Forecasting model: weighted moving average and exponential smoothing We could use instead different methods. The moving average is a simple method that doesn’t take in in consideration the weight or real value that a number has. In fact to overcome this issue we can adopt the â€Å"weighted moving average method† and the â€Å"exponential smoothing method†. Using the â€Å"weighted moving average method† I take under considerations 3 years, which I consider the most important. The value of weights it is based on the percentage growth every year. Using weighted moving average, we can have a better forecast. However, it is more important for a better forecast to use the exponential smoothing method. Here I take in consideration all of the years moving from 2008. Found out that the smoothing factor is pretty high, 0.99. I took under consideration 0.9 as my alpha because in this particular case higher alpha means that the recent history will have more weightage in the forecast calculation. As we can see from page 26/68 I took under consideration Toyota’s Consolidated Performance (U.S. GAAP). I think that the last one is the most appropriate method to see a realest forecast for the next year. Of course the calculation has been made â€Å"ceteris paribus† so everything it is supposed to be the same next year, but as showed before this particular market is subject to constant changes. For this reason and other random errors the forecast could be higher or lower, but however we can obviously see a positive trend in Toyota’s business. Thanks to the tireless efforts of all concerned, today Toyota’s group can take pride in the strengths of its management practices and culture. Even its president is convinced that they are now in a position to take a definitive step forward toward sustainable growth. Conclusion: Toyota heading towards Sustainable Growth So is Toyota heading towards a sustainable growth? What is the engine for sustainable growth? Toyota has learned from experience that they can achieve sustainable growth only if they manage to create great cars that bring smiles and if they foster the human resources needed to make this a reality. At the same time, ever-better cars can be produced only through efforts made by employees on the front line. Individuals must take ownership of their work and place the utmost emphasis on local manufacturing, swift decision making, and immediate action. As it continues to grow however, tasks that were once routine may become increasingly difficult to perform. As I see it, Toyota’s current situation is particularly critical as we are now entering another expansion phase. This is a really important moment for Toyota. For this, because of the risks associated with the future Toyota should continue to seek perfection in his work of manufacturing, but especially in its management process where the decision-making process takes a fundamental part. References and sources For further readings†¦ Ken Segall, Insanely Simple, the obsession that drives Apple’s success, Published by Portfolio Trade, 2013 Robbins, De cenzo Coulter, Fundamentals of management, Global edition, 8th Edition, Pearson Higher Education, (2014 version) Burns and Stalker, The management of innovation, Tovistock Publications, London, 1961 Some internet sites†¦ ADAPT OR DIE, by John S. McCallum – Ivey Business Journal about management [accessed November 18, 2014] 1

Saturday, July 20, 2019

Lowering the Bar :: College Education School Essays

Lowering the Bar We have reached an era where everyone is expected to go to college, and educators are forcing this goal upon unwilling individuals to their great detriment. According to Barbara Schneider and David Stevenson in The Ambitious Generation: America's Teenagers, Motivated but Directionless, only fifty percent of twelfth graders surveyed in the 1950s expected to attend college, but by the 1990s, that number had increased to 90% (5). Much of this can be attributed to the increasing complexity of the American workplace—machinery has replaced most of the blue-collar jobs that existed five decades ago, and nearly every job requires some degree of technical sophistication. Much of it, however, cannot. Almost half of teenagers expecting to attend college â€Å"hope to get degrees that exceed the credentials needed for the occupations they want† (Schneider 6). Schneider calls this an example of misaligned ambitions, as the majority of teenagers â€Å"have high ambitions but no clear life plans for reaching them† (7). In the 1950s, high school students were segmented into different programs—vocational, commercial, general education, and college preparatory—but now, 95% of high schools in America are considered comprehensive (Schneider 113). This situation provides a difficult dichotomy, as high school graduates now are better educated than those who graduated in the 1950’s were; but where our grandparents could expect that a high school diploma would gain them a job in a company where they could advance for the rest of their career, current â€Å"adolescents believe the college diploma is the basic credential needed to obtain meaningful work† (Schneider 52). What 80% of college bound students do expect, however, is a professional occupation after college, compared to only 42% of previous generations (Schneider 5). So, while more people expect to go to college than before, more of those who expect to go to college also expect to be better rewarded for it than students in the 1950s. This is another example of misaligned ambitions, but were the majority of those students successful, it could be overlooked. Instead, what we are finding is that today’s students are not prepared to succeed in a university environment. Only 34% of students who were freshmen in 1989 finished their bachelor’s degree in four years, with an additional 24% finishing in five years. To look at these numbers on a smaller scale, my freshman suite can be considered as an example.

Farewell to arms - Bravery :: essays research papers

Bravery is the quality of a person who displays courage and fearlessness in the face of danger. Such qualities show splendor and magnificence in a person. Fear and terror sometimes hinder the determination someone can show. Overcoming this fear is what portrays bravery. In Ernest Hemingway’s A Farewell to Arms, Frederick Henry shows bravery by freely joining the Italian army, risking his life for some ambulance drivers and swimming to freedom, being shot at the whole way. Frederick Henry grew up in America and in his early twenties, he decided to go to Europe and fight in the Italian army. Henry’s decision in the first place, showed courage and bravery. Fighting for another country over making a living in your own goes above and beyond what is remotely asked for. Even in my wildest dreams, I would probably not even think about fighting for my own country, let alone a foreign country. Times were tough, especially when the start of the winter came. With that winter came â€Å"permanent rain and with the rain came the cholera. But it was checked and in the end and only seven thousand died of it in the army.† (4) In the army, people die, and it is not the nicest place. Frederick Henry chose to enter this world and this portrays bravery. In chapter nine, Henry shows his brave character once again. In Paula, Henry was installed in a roadside trench. Some of the men were hungry so Henry volunteered to go and fetch some cold macaroni from the other side of the trench. The major advised him against it and said, â€Å"You better wait until the shelling is over.† Henry replied, â€Å"They want to eat.† (53) As Henry and the others came back to the dugout, shelling began and bombs burst around them. Then the blast furnace door swung open and Henry was badly injured. This incident showed his selfless courage and bravery. He did not have to do it, yet he went and got the food anyway. Henry risked his life for the others, and that is another true sign of bravery. Henry shows courage again in one of the last chapters we read. In the morning after a night of sleeping in a barn, Henry and Piani reunited with a group of soldiers. Suddenly two men from the battle police seize hold of Henry. Piani was led away, questioned, and then shot to death.

Friday, July 19, 2019

The History of Computing :: Free Essay Writer

The History of Computing The Computer - Man’s Greatest Achievment Computers are indeed approaching the status of the core operator of every electronic device or utility in the world today. Their â€Å"logic† and process can produce results millions of times faster than that of the human brain. They are at the helm of everything from an old walk man to the systems that keep the Earth’s continents in constant communications. They’ll likely soon be the basis of communications between other civilizations in outer space. When the computer was first introduced, it was simply a device of convenience for use of the masses or huge corporations and universities. The incredible machines have now grown so much since their introduction, that the World’s economy desperately depends on them to function. But computers have not always been so royal. The first machine to be classified as a computer used no circuitry of any kind, but was consistent entirely of gears and rods that made simple calculations in mathematics. As compute rs progressed in complexity and became more modern, society utilized them in nearly every way possible. They now are incorporated into every aspect of human life, especially for recreation and general home usage. It remains second in complexity only to that of the human brain. And yet it they still progress towards perfection. The idea of what is now modern computing originates (more or less) in the late 1700’s with the birth of computing’s conceptual father, Charles Babbage. He was born in London on December 26, 1791, the day after Christmas. He excelled in the area of mathematics (algebra for the most part), acting as his own instructor. He found himself to have been far in intellectual advance of his peers and â€Å"mentors†. Upon attending Trinity College, Cambridge in 1811, he still remained at incredible superiority to his tutors. After founding several societies (i.e. Analytical Society, Astronomical Society or Royal Astronomical Society), he became interested in mathematical calculation machines. This ultimately became his life interest. He pursued the invention of a machine that could compile mathematical tables. This gave way to the design of the â€Å"Difference Engine†. It performed somewhat complex mathematical tasks using gears and belts, not quite the hard ware integrated in todays machines. He eventually conceived the design of an â€Å"Analytical Engine† that would be able to make virtually any calculation (at least those considered in the time period) given the proper commands and instructions.

Thursday, July 18, 2019

Plagiarism in Higher Education Essay

Al Ain Women’s College, Higher Colleges of Technology, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates Abstract Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of the modern information society on attitudes and approaches to the prevention of plagiarism and to examine a less punitive, more educative model. Design/methodology/approach – The approach taken is a literature review of plagiarism in contemporary society followed by a case study of the education department of a tertiary-level college in the United Arab Emirates. Findings – The authors advocate a move towards a less punitive, more educative approach which takes into account all the relevant contextual factors. A call is made for a truly institutional response to a shared concern, with comprehensive and appropriate policies and guidelines which focus on prevention, the development of student skills, and the proactive involvement of all relevant stakeholders. Practical implications – This approach could inform the policies and practices of institutions who wish to systematically deal with plagiarism in other contemporary contexts. Originality/value – This paper could be of value to policy makers and administrators in tertiary institutions, particularly in English as a second language contexts, who recognise the limitations of traditional approaches to plagiarism and wish to establish more effective practices. Keywords Copyright law, Information society, Dishonesty, United Arab Emirates Paper type Literature review Plagiarism in political discourse Politicians, more than anyone else, need to portray an image of integrity, honesty, and independent thought. Their election, their livelihood, and the fate of their constituents would seem to depend on it. Yet politicians commonly use speechwriters who have the speci? c task of conveying their thoughts, personality, and personal sincerity (see for example, Philp, 2009). It may be argued that although politicians do not necessarily write the words themselves, they endorse the words they use. But what if the words themselves are not original? In one instance, the presidential candidate Barack Obama was confronted by the fact that some of his speeches had taken material from Deval Patrick, the Massachusetts Governor. Obama admitted he should have acknowledged his source: Education, Business and Society: Contemporary Middle Eastern Issues Vol. 3 No. 3, 2010 pp. 166-177 q Emerald Group Publishing Limited 1753-7983 DOI 10. 1108/17537981011070082 I was on the stump. [Deval] had suggested that we use these lines and I thought they were good lines [. . . ] I’m sure I should have – didn’t this time [. . . ] I really don’t think this is too big of a deal (Obama cited in Whitesides, 2008). Published by kind permission of HCT Press. Plagiarism has been de? ned as â€Å"the unacknowledged use of someone else’s work [. . . ] and passing it off as if it were one’s own† (Park, 2004, p.292) and it is interesting to speculate whether such an excuse would be accepted from a student by an educational institution’s plagiarism committee. Accusations of plagiarism in politics have been made before, of course, though the outcomes were often different, suggesting that a shift may be taking place in attitudes towards plagiarism in politics. In 1987, another presidential hopeful was forced to abandon his ambitions for high of? ce largely because he had plagiarised a speech by the British politician Neil Kinnock and because of â€Å"a serious plagiarism incident† in his law school years (Sabato, 1998). Ironically, the candidate was none other than Joe Biden, the man chosen by Obama to be his Vice President. In politics today, it seems as though plagiarism no longer signals the end of a career. In contrast, students who are caught cheating or plagiarising can be subject to sanctions and consequences that are severely life impacting, which in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) can include permanent exclusion from all tertiary education (see for example, Higher Colleges of Technology (HCT), 2008). One question of fundamental concern that we must ask ourselves as tertiary-level educators is why college students, who have much less at stake, considerably less experience and knowledge and who do not use English as their ? rst language, should be held to higher standards of responsibility in communication than those in the highest political of? ces? Yet, if we make allowances for students who are still learning to orientate themselves in academic discourse, what standards should be applied? Plagiarism in a complex information society The concept of plagiarism is a relatively new cultural phenomenon. Greek philosophers regularly appropriated material from earlier works without compunction, and originality was considered less important than imitating, often orally, the great works of their predecessors (Lackie and D’Angelo-Long, 2004, p. 37). All the way through the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, the study of rhetoric rather than written language was often the norm, with students required to give public speeches to assembled faculty. Only the subsequent move towards written assignments brought with it new perceptions of student plagiarism (Simmons, 1999, p. 41). Around the same time, in the earlier part of the twentieth century, the formalization of citation styles from organizations such as the American Psychological Association marked a desire to standardise academic writing and provide a model for ethically quoting the work of others (Simmons, 1999, p. 42). With the rise of the information society and electronic media, another cultural shift seems to be underway. There have been recent suggestions that plagiarism is becoming more prevalent, and much of the blame has been placed on â€Å"nearly universal access to the Internet† (Scanlon and Neumann, 2002, p. 374). Park (2004, p. 293) refers to the ease of â€Å"copying [. . . ] in a digital world of computers, word processing, electronic sources and the Internet. † However, the explosion of electronic sources of information has not just made copying easier, it has also made it much more central to our students’ cultural and social experiences. Students going into tertiary education have grown up with the internet and are at home with downloading â€Å"free† ? lms, sharing music and modifying and emailing all kinds of material taken from the web. They have developed highly skilled ways of conducting non-academic research using  services such as search engines, social networking sites, podcasts, RSS feeds, discussion boards, etc. with Dealing with plagiarism 167 EBS 3,3 168 hyperlinks allowing them to jump from site to site as though the internet were a single-uni? ed source, and with copying and pasting a mainstay of interaction. They take it for granted that a pop star such as will. i. am can pick up and rework virtually the entire content of a political speech, and turn it into the award winning song and music video Yes we can, apparently without Obama’s knowledge or consent ((The) ABC News, 2008). They are not surprised when this video is then embedded in countless webpages, with the lyrics of the song posted on music sites without any attribution of the original source (see for example, LyricsReg, n. d). This intertextuality is a perfect example of the â€Å"postmodern, self-cannibalizing popular culture† (Bowman, 2004, p. 8) that our students now engage with on a daily basis. Students may well bring to the classroom very different ideas from their teachers about what constitutes fair use. Indeed, one study of 2,600 tertiary-level students in the UAE found that just over 40 percent considered cutting and pasting from the internet as either trivial cheating or not cheating at all. The attitudes of UAE students are similar to those of other students around the world (Croucher, 2009). Some theorists have gone a step further and argue that as the new media become more interactive and collaborative, it calls into question the whole idea of a â€Å"creative, original, individual who, as an autonomous scholar, presents his/her work to the public in his/her own name† (Scollon, 1995, p.1). The multiple contributors to Wikipedia pages is a clear example of how a collaborative process undermines our sense of authorship. In addition, the notion of what constitutes â€Å"fair use† is changing quickly. This is exempli? ed by the open source movement where material can be downloaded, modi? ed, and shared with minimal and strictly controlled author’s rights (See for example, Open Source Initiative, n. d). As Blum (2009) notes, the â€Å"rules about intellectual property are in ? ux. † Where does this leave educators? Has plagiarism become an irrelevant concept, too outdated in its de? nition to be of use in the production of educated professionals ready to take their place in our post-modern society? Do we have to accept Johnson’s (2007) argument that in the digital age, writing an original essay outside of class for assessment purposes is no longer viable in its current form because of the ease of copying from the internet? Do we have to agree with him when he says such tasks are no longer even relevant because they fail to re? ect the modern workplace? As Johnson argues: My transfer from education to the world of business has reminded me just how important it is to be able to synthesize content from multiple sources, put structure around it and edit it into a coherent, single-voiced whole. Students who are able to create convincing amalgamations have gained a valuable business skill. Unfortunately, most schools fail to recognize that any skills have been used at all, and an entire paper can be discarded because of a few lines repeated from another source without quotation marks. Plagiarism in education Plagiarism in education seems to operate under a very different set of rules from the pragmatic ? elds of politics or business and can create emotional responses that deploy highly charged metaphors such as The Plagiarism Plague (Bowman, 2004) or â€Å"Winning hearts and minds in war on plagiarism† (Jaschik, 2008). In education, plagiarism is â€Å"seen as a transgression against our common intellectual values, carrying justi? ably bad consequences for those guilty of the practice† (Isserman, 2003). Why is it generally accepted that politicians can use ghostwriters, but that students cannot, even if the stakes for the students are much lower? The critical issue for education is that plagiarism â€Å"circumvents the learning process† (Spencer, 2004, p. 16). The process of analysing and synthesizing ideas, and reformulating them in writing, is seen as central to learning. Only by ensuring that students struggle to assimilate material and develop their own voice do students go beyond surface information and develop higher order thinking skills. As Isserman (2003) notes: [.. . ] ownership over the words you use [. . . ] is really at the heart of the learning process. You can read a dozen books about the cold war, but if you can’t explain what you have learned to someone else in your own words, no real learning has taken place [. . . ] and you will have made no progress whatsoever toward realizing the central goal of a liberal-arts education: the ability to think for yourself. Dealing with plagiarism 169 This struggle for intellectual development is not easy, which is precisely the reason that makes plagiarism attractive for some students. In most cases teachers are not concerned about literary theft, but that their students are missing out on opportunities for learning because they are failing to engage with the material in a meaningful way. Plagiarism is therefore â€Å"denying them the opportunity to learn lessons, improve their study skills, and improve their knowledge and understanding† (Lancaster University, 2009, p. 3). If plagiarism is especially serious in education because it is an obstacle to learning, then we should deal with instances of plagiarism primarily from an educational perspective rather than the punitive one. Students need to learn the importance of academic integrity and understand that it is not just a hoop to be jumped through, but is integral to intellectual and personal growth. Clearly this learning process cannot be instantaneous, and allowances should be made as students develop. However, this does not mean that severe penalties should be removed from the process entirely as there will always be students who refuse or are unable to meet appropriate standards. Factors in? uencing the incidence of plagiarism Individual, pedagogical, and institutional factors can all in? uence the incidence of plagiarism. Students themselves can be impacted by a wide range of factors including their educational conditioning, cultural background, motivation, language skill, peer pressure, gender, issues with time management, ability, and even the subject being studied (Roig, 1997). If the tertiary experience is vastly different to students’ previous educational experience, the motivation for plagiarism again increases. In the UAE, it is likely, for example, that the students’ primary and secondary schooling was characterised by rote learning and the quest for a single correct answer, non-transparent and poorly conceived assessment practices, and vast social inequities within the student base, and between students and their often socially and economically disadvantaged teachers. Norms, expectations, and demands learned in this context can be dif? cult to dislodge in subsequent institutions which place a premium on the exploration of problems and solutions, independent and critical thinking skills, and academic integrity. If plagiarism is not de? ned or academic processes made explicit, then such students will ? nd it impossible to reach the standards that are suddenly and (to them) inexplicably imposed on them. Pedagogical approaches may also contribute to the prevalence of plagiarism. Current methodologies place much more emphasis on collaboration and group work, with a greater weight given to out-of-class projects and portfolios at the expense of formal exams. The result is that the line between collaboration and cheating during assessed tasks is blurred, and if this is not explicitly dealt with by assessors, it will inevitably EBS 3,3 170 result in misunderstandings as to what is acceptable. Also, students are more likely to justify cheating if the coursework or assignments they were given were too hard, poorly scaffolded, or based on unreasonable expectations of their abilities (Naidoo, 2008), and plagiarism will be made easier if the assignments are not constructed carefully so that stock answers cannot be copied from the internet (Wood, 2004). However, the institutional context plays perhaps the most critical role. For example, unclear and uncommunicated institutional policies with vague de?  nitions of plagiarism can affect the incidence of plagiarism, as can the application of those policies (McCabe et al. , 2002). Some aspects of an organization may unwittingly encourage plagiarism. For example, in contrast to schools, tertiary education institutions in the UAE do not typically award top grades to large numbers of students, and there is evidence to suggest that students justify using ghostwriters in such an environment because they believe they deserve better grades (Croucher, 2009). An often overlooked but crucial aspect of deterring and detecting plagiarism is the application of institutional policies by teachers. One survey of 800 American academics at 16 institutions found that 40 percent never reported incidents of plagiarism while a further 54 percent did so only seldomly, even though the evidence suggested they must have received plagiarised work (McCabe, 1993 cited in Schneider, 1999). There are many reasons why teachers may be reluctant to report plagiarism. Teachers may feel the potential penalties for students are too high (Auer and Krupar, 2001). They may also be wary of making false accusations which potentially undermine their own professional status. Some teachers object to taking on the role of detective or enforcer as it undermines the mentor-student relationship (Schneider, 1999; Park, 2004) while others may not have the time to make an extra effort to uncover plagiarism and follow it up (Park, 2004). It may also be that some teachers, especially teachers of content subjects where the focus is less on form and more on ideas, may not have suf? ciently developed skills to detect plagiarism. Hyland (2001) found that even teachers who detect plagiarism may use indirect feedback when dealing with plagiarism (for example, comments in the margins such as â€Å"Are these your own words?†) which can lead to miscommunication with the student about what is acceptable. With so many factors at play, the responsibilities of teachers must be clearly codi? ed if any institutional initiative is to have any success. Plagiarism and ESOL/EFL English for speakers of other languages (ESOL) and English as a foreign language (EFL) contexts may be more prone to infringements of academic integrity because students lack the English skills to understand the coursework and so may feel that plagiarism offers the only solution (Hyland, 2001; Liu, 2005). Moreover, the cultural conditioning of English as a second language (ESL) and EFL students has been cited as another contributing factor. Moder (1995 cited in Lackie and D’Angelo-Long, 2004, p. 38) suggests that some societies, including those in the Middle East, â€Å"value memorization and imitation as the mark of an educated person† which may mean that plagiarism is viewed as being less signi? cant. Liu (2005, p. 239) disagrees with the notion of cultural conditioning, however, claiming that â€Å"it is  based on incorrect information and is presented often via unwarranted jumps in reasoning and con? ation of separate issues. † More pertinently, perhaps, she goes on to argue that: [. . . ] even if we concede that such cultural conditioning indeed exists to some extent, we still cannot say for sure that it is the main reason that ESOL students plagiarize. There are many other factors that may motivate ESOL students from many L1 backgrounds to plagiarize, including a lack of adequate pro? ciency, lack of task speci?c writing skills, and of course, the urge to cheat (p. 239). Dealing with plagiarism ESOL students, then, whether or not cultural conditioning is accepted as an underlying factor in plagiarism, may still have greater motivation than their ? rst language counterparts to take and use the ideas and words of others in their own assignments. Ironically, plagiarism by ESOL students is also far more likely to be detected because of more prominent differences in language level and tone between copied and original work. Degrees of plagiarism Intuitively, plagiarism varies in its severity in a way that cheating (e. g. using crib sheets or having someone else take a test for you) does not. It can consist of minor lapses, for example, when original material is poorly paraphrased but the source is acknowledged, through deliberately copying parts of a text without citing the source, to submitting work from an online paper mill (Roig, 1997). Critical factors in determining the severity of the plagiarism include the intention behind the plagiarism (was it deliberate or accidental? ), the amount of material that has been plagiarised, the inclusion of the source in the list of references, the degree to which the plagiarised material differs from the source (an indication at an attempt to paraphrase), the time the student has spent in tertiary education, and whether it is the ? rst, second, or subsequent occurrence. Given the wide variation in the seriousness of plagiarism and the developmental process students must undergo to assimilate the norms of academic writing, it is clear that the appearance of plagiarised material is not always a deliberate attempt to cheat. For example, students are often poor at paraphrasing and may not be fully aware that this could be construed as plagiarism. Roig (1999) gave English-speaking undergraduate students a two-sentence paragraph to paraphrase and found that between 41 and 68 percent of the responses contained strings of at least ? ve words or more copied from the original. These results clearly back up the claim that plagiarism may indicate a de? cit in appropriate skills and not intentional academic dishonesty. Towards an institutional response to plagiarism In many educational institutions, plagiarism is seen largely as a teacher/student problem. If plagiarism is detected, then the teacher makes a decision as to whether to escalate the case for possible punitive action. The plagiarism is seen either as morally wrong or as a â€Å"crime† – the breaking of a rule that has inevitable consequences (Blum, 2009). Unfortunately, dealing with plagiarism in this way can result in decisions which are reactive, emotive, and which are made informally on an ad hoc basis, thus inviting inequity and inconsistency. When the focus is directed towards punishment, there may be little maturation in terms of academic integrity for the student concerned, or for those who watch their classmate’s fate from the sidelines. Academic endeavour must take place within an institutional culture that routinely recognises and reinforces the value of academic integrity so that all stakeholders are obliged to proactively follow and uphold best practice in order to reduce the impact of the contributing factors discussed above. This requires the establishment of an institutional response to plagiarism that is comprehensive, appropriate, fair, developmental, transparent, and educative. 171 EBS 3,3 Park (2004, p. 294) describes such an institutional framework for dealing with plagiarism that was developed by a working party at Lancaster University in consultation with staff and with reference to experience and the literature: The working party sought to move the plagiarism discourse beyond just detection and punishment and to situate and embed it in a cohesive framework that tackles the root causes as well as the symptoms of plagiarism as a family of behaviours. 172 The key elements underpinning this framework were consistency and transparency. These were ensured by the explicit codi? cation of stakeholder responsibilities, procedures, and penalties. In order for such a framework to be implemented effectively, Park (2004, p. 296) noted that â€Å"all stakeholders within the institution must understand and appreciate why the framework is necessary and how it protects their own interests. † A case study Park (2004, pp. 295-9) nominated a number of central pillars that lend validity and effectiveness to any such institutional framework. These included transparency, ownership by stakeholders, student engagement, academic integrity, framing the initiative to ensure compatibility with the culture of the institution, focus on prevention and deterrence, and the supportive and developmental nature of the framework. These pillars provide excellent reference points for the approach taken in one department in a college in the UAE and allow us to examine the viability and ef? cacy of such a framework for the local context. The Education Department at Abu Dhabi Women’s College (ADWC) has addressed its concerns with academic honesty in a concerted, collaborative, and multi-faceted fashion. As teacher educators, the faculty in this department are intent on producing future academics. Much like politicians, words, information, and the generation of ideas are the very foundation of our professional lives, so we regard it as essential that the â€Å"rules† of using these appropriately are disseminated, understood, and followed at all times by all of our students. To this end, we have established and adhere to a set of policies and practices at all levels that support and facilitate academic honesty. Institutional/departmental level The HCT, of which ADWC is only one of 16, institutionally mandates the prevention and sanctioning of plagiarism and related offences. Consequences of infringements of these rules are outlined in of?cial policies, Student Handbooks (see for example, HCT, 2008), contracts signed by students at the commencement of their studies, and reinforced by administrative staff and faculty at every student meeting and examination session held throughout the student’s academic career at HCT. From these guidelines, the Education Division throughout the colleges has documented standards and procedures that address academic honesty in its assessment handbooks – one that is distributed to all education students and the other, more comprehensive and speci?c, that is used by all education faculty. This shared written documentation enables best practice in assessment to be disseminated and followed, provides the underlying philosophy and approach for the division as a whole, and addresses academic honesty both directly and indirectly to better support student writing and make plagiarism a less viable or attractive option. The assessment handbooks re? ect the developmental curricular approach of the division as a whole, and so specify the type, nature, and expectations for assessments at each level to scaffold the students’ ability to produce increasingly sophisticated and original work. Ensuring that requirements are reasonable and documented minimises the students’ need to seek help through illegitimate means. These handbooks are the basis of communication within the ADWC Education Department on all matters regarding assessment and have served to ensure a common approach and understanding. Insights gained by instructors in their daily interactions with students and their submissions inevitably reveal general dif?culties facing students, which are then examined in regular formal and informal meetings to brainstorm and implement further strategies that may be useful. The ongoing concern at faculty level with issues of academic honesty is mirrored in the systematic recycling of warnings, information, and explicit instructions to students. As a department, the theft or misappropriation of ideas and words has been, and continues to be, addressed as professionally offensive and inappropriate. Initiatives suggested by Education Department faculty as well as colleagues in other departments and colleges are pursued vigorously. One recent example has been the provision of workshops by library staff on research skills and academic procedures. The plagiarism detection software, Turnitin, was originally adopted by the department as both a defence against plagiarism and a tool to help students protect themselves against accidental plagiarism. This proved to be very effective, but unfortunately access to this subsequently became unavailable. Now, suspicious text samples are input into search engines and all assignments are run through SafeAssign, a plagiarism checker in Blackboard (the online course management system). These have proved to be acceptable alternatives. As Braumoeller and Gaines (2001) found in their study, â€Å"the deterrent effects of actually checking for plagiarism are quite impressive (p. 836). † The departmental approach has included a series of mandatory workshops and masterclasses on academic writing and plagiarism for all students in slightly altered learning contexts designed to motivate, encourage participation, and focus attention. It should be noted that the relatively small size of the department (one chair, six faculty, and fewer than 80 students) makes shared understandings, uniform dissemination of information, and infraction detection much easier and more likely than in a bigger department where students are not familiar to every teacher. Course level Academic writing skills are an important component of all education courses. Referencing skills are taught explicitly in a speci? c course during the students’ ? rst semester, and then constantly reinforced and recycled throughout the programme. The education programmes at the HCT are based on re?  ective practice. This means that assignments are contextualised and require the application rather than the regurgitation of theory, so copying from previously submitted work or in any way buying or commissioning a paper cannot be so easily accomplished as theory has to ? t the student’s individual circumstances. In addition, the student’s right to submit and receive feedback on a ? rst draft of every paper (Assessment Handbook, 2009, p. 7) allows plagiarism, deliberate, or accidental; to be detected and remediated at an earlier stage before punishment becomes the only option. The feedback and scaffolding policy (pp.53-5), which outlines the form and scope of feedback to be given, draws instructor attention to both macro and micro features of the submission, so any attempt to use words or ideas from an external source should be revealed at least a week before ? nal submission. Dealing with plagiarism 173 EBS 3,3 All students submitting assignments in the Education Division are required to sign a declaration on their cover page that the work is entirely their own and all sources have been acknowledged (Assessment Handbook, 2009, p. 47). This provides a ? nal reminder that academic honesty is expected and will be monitored. Faculty responsibilities and input All faculty in the Education Department, regardless of their course allocation, consider themselves teachers of English. This is not only because we each have ESL teaching quali? cations and experience (obviously an advantage), but also because we recognise the importance of language as the vehicle for idea generation and transmission. Language is inseparable from the content area in which those ideas are conceived and manipulated. This can be a very different orientation to that of colleagues in other departments whose subject area specialisation takes precedence. Our more holistic approach means that we explicitly teach both content and the language elements with which to express that content to students who may be struggling with the unfamiliarity of both. It also means that we take our role as defenders of academic integrity very seriously and vigilantly monitor and check student output. As professional ESL teacher educators, we strive to be models of effective language use as well as successful proponents of academic scholarship, so ongoing instruction in both is a routine aspect of teaching and learning in the department. This increased student awareness of appropriate academic writing processes reduces their motivation to misappropriate text written by others. The cultural and social aspects of plagiarism are also given attention by faculty. In a society that places less value on individuality than it does on cooperation and social cohesion, it is important for students to understand that they have not only the right, but the responsibility, to turn down requests for assistance from peers. Faculty not only explain this, but also explain to students how to respond assertively with friends or relatives asking for inappropriate help. Without this, no amount of education or punishment can ever be successful. Student involvement Education students are required to be active participants in their own learning. Because all assessment processes are documented and transparent, they have the ability to question and ask for clari? cation on any aspect that they do not understand. All expectations or consequences are addressed in multiple ways, so ignorance is no defence for malpractice. Submissions of ? rst drafts are perhaps the most critical aspect for students. Although these are universally permitted and scheduled, they are never awarded a mark and are not always actually demanded, so it is up to the student to take advantage of their right to pre-submission feedback. An appropriate framework? The Education Department at ADWC values academic honesty very highly and has organized its procedures and practices accordingly. The very infrequent occurrence of plagiarism is testimony to the effectiveness of: . proactive strategizing; . clear documentation; . reasonable and appropriate expectations; 174 . . . . . awareness raising; sustained faculty vigilance and involvement; support for the development of student skills and cognitive growth; decreased student opportunity and motivation to cheat; and the pervasive sense of professional identity and responsibility that characterise departmental efforts on this issue at all levels. Dealing with plagiarism 175 The work done in this department is thus an arguably successful attempt to â€Å"devise a student plagiarism framework that best suits [our] own culture and circumstances†.