Saturday, November 30, 2019

Research Presentation free essay sample

Materialism – Jhingur judges himself by the value of his property as if this defines his character Quote: â€Å"Whenever Jhingur looked at his cane field a sort of intoxication came over him. He had bighas of land which would earn him an easy 600 rupees. And if God sawto it that therates went up then who could complain? Why should he worry about money? The merchants were already beginning to fawn on him. † From the beginning we seem to focus on the character of Jhingur that seems to value wealth over what may be for himself and his community. Instead of focusing on how his work can positively affect his life, he focuses on the negative. His focus is on his need to make money from his fellow farmers as possible, believing himself to be the better person. Social Issues Explotation Both men are propelled into acts of vengeance that it ultimately destroyed both of their fortunes. We will write a custom essay sample on Research Presentation or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page This derived from a primitive need for the characters to compete against each other. The material desires at the end have blinded them, and they may never see the true value of life. They brought about their own destruction. The core of this story lies a lesson on how materialism can impair our ability to see what is best for our life. In the period during which India evolved from colonial domination to independence, Tagore and Premchand were pioneers in Modern Indian literature. Their literary works pioneered social issues and the social structure of India that concentrated on the oppressed, human emotions, destruction, oppression of women and life. These authors proved that they can focus on the psychology of the characters instead of social realism. We will explore the context of the stories through the characters journey’s and struggles and unfortunate consequences in the end. â€Å"Punishment† portrayal of the complex relationships among the members of the Rui family and how tragedy can delve into real issues that we have hidden. â€Å"The day on which our story begins was like this†¦.. That day, Dukhiram and Chidam had been working near the zamindar’s office. On a sandbank opposite, paddy had ripened. The paddy needed to be cut before the sanbank was washed away, but the village people were busy either in their own fields or in cutting jute: so a messenger came from the office and forcibly engaged the two brothers. As the office roof was leaking in places, they also had to mend that and make some new wicker wood panels: it had taken them all day. † (p. 893) Two peasant brothers and their wives share a house together. The short-tempered, sloppy wife, Radha, is killed by her husband, Dukhiram, in a fit of anger for failing to prepare the evening meal. The village chief intrudes on the scene immediately following the murder, and the other brother, Chidam, unintentionally identifies the beautiful wife, Chandara, as the killer. Chidam instructs Chandara to lie to protect her brother-in-law. Now, we start to see the divison in the male and female hierarchy. Before this revelation, despite their love for each other, Chandara and Chidam had trouble in the relationship. Chandara suspected her husband of infidelity, and began flirting at the watering hole. Chidam then threatened her stating, â€Å"I’ll break every bone in your body† (p. 896) and locked her in the house. She escaped to a relative’s house, but was persuaded to return only after Chidam â€Å"had to surrender to her. † (p. 896). When we examine this relationship, it great to point out that Tagore states, â€Å"It was as hard to restrain his wife as to hold a handful of mercury. † (p. 896) Chandara has achieved a sort of power by submission; we tend to question where the balance of power lies in this relationship. The chain of events after the murder further explores the complexity in the relationship of Chidam and Chandara. When discussing the murder they agree that Chidam will save Chandara from execution, if she agrees to his lie. Chidam expects Chandara to relate that her sister-in-law attacked her and that Radha was killed in self-defense. After being taken into custody by the police, Chandara defies her husband by telling the police that the attack was unprovoked and puts her own life at risk. She was so angry with him that she refuses to see him before her execution stating, â€Å"To hell with him. †(p. 899). She accepts the punishment for a crime she did not commit in order to punish Chidam. She will not give him the satisfaction of saving her. Chidam gets her to take the blame for the crime but loses in the end by not getting his wife back. The story is unique by telling a story about the complex nature of human behavior and the unjust social set up of how women had no social status and importance in a family. Evidence of how the oppression of women is shown when Chidam states, â€Å"a wife can be replaced but a brother cannot be replaced,† (p. 894) clearly points out women are not valued. Tagore touches on women being oppressed and how social injustice was a common thing issue for women in rural Bangladesh during that time.

Tuesday, November 26, 2019

Reflection Essay The Span of Life Essay Example

Reflection Essay The Span of Life Essay Example Reflection Essay The Span of Life Paper Reflection Essay The Span of Life Paper Reading Reflection: â€Å"The Span of Life† Reading Reflection: â€Å"The Span of Life† Although only sixteen words long, this poem jumped off the page and into my head, heart, and soul. As I read â€Å"the old dog bark backwards without getting up† (Clugston, 2010, What literature contributes to our lives, para. 11) for the first time, I thought of the literal meaning of the sentence. It’s just an old dog on the floor barking back at something it is bothered by. Then it hits me after I read â€Å"I can remember when he was a pup† (Clugston, 2010, What literature contributes to our lives, para. 11). This is not just about an old dog on the floor. This situation will eventually happen to every single one of us. I then began to imagine myself as an old woman, looking back on my life and what I had made of it. Am I happy with what I have become? Could I have done it any differently? Did I make all the right choices in my life? At this point I can’t change anything, as I am on the way out of the life I have created for myself. I am now having feelings I can’t place words on. So, how does this work of literature cause me to go to such a place in my mind so vividly and powerfully? How do I account for the feelings that I am having? This paper will provide my reflections and insights into the poem â€Å"The Span of Life† by Robert Frost by describing why it caught my interest as the reader, and then evaluating the meaning of the poem using the reader-response approach to literary criticism. This work immediately captured my interest because of the powerful image that Frost creates of an old dog on the floor. I am a dog lover and I have always had them around. I know what an old dog looks like laying on the floor; tired, grey, and frail. Frost has â€Å"given us first a sound picture of the dog near the end of his life† (Wood, 2009, para. 4). With this image I am free to determine what that dog means to me as the reader. In addition, after reading the next line I am completely drawn in by the powerful symbolism that is used to represent the actual span of life that we all shall experience (Clugston, 2010). This is where all the emotions kick in. So, what aspects of this poem make me feel the way that I do about it? The following will describe that process. The reader-response approach to literary criticism focuses on making connections and reflecting on them. In ddition to making connections to a work of literature, the feelings that are felt must be accounted for. According to this approach, I must never solely depend on my feelings and opinions; they must be linked to the literary aspects within the work (Clugston, 2010). This approach offers endless interpretive possibilities by the reader and there is no r ight or wrong way to interpret a literary work (Reader response criticism, 1997). Clugston (2010) suggests that I use â€Å"connecting† questions to help develop a critical analysis of the poem. According to these questions, I should first consider what captured my imagination. As described above, it was simply the powerful imagery and symbolism. Next, I should consider if what I felt was an emotion, a curiosity, or an aspiration. With the particular poem I was overtaken first by curiosity of what this poem could mean, and then by emotion, especially when I sat back and thought about what Frost was trying to convey. Imagining the dog barking backwards I see myself looking into the past. He used that image of the old dog to evoke thoughts and emotions about the â€Å"inevitable life cycle that both the dog and the reader face† (Clugston, 2010, What literature contributes to our lives, para. 4). Now, it must be determined if the above mentioned involves a desire to escape the past or present. In this case, I want to escape both. I don’t want to deal with my death moving forward, and I am questioning what I have done in the past. So, what motivation or change did my connection with this piece of literature create in my thinking and my relationshi ps? â€Å"I can remember when he was a pup† had me thinking about my past and the life I have already lived. Then, I immediately begin thinking about my mortality. Have I lived enough and in a way that I would want to be remembered if I die tomorrow? Do the people that I love know that I do? Moving forward, how can I make my life better? This poem brought about so much thought for me. Now, what connections can I make between this work and others that I have read and do those connections reinforce things I know or add new insights? In this case it was more about adding new insights than connections. With those sixteen short words I was brought into a world that I really have never experienced from the written page. Experiencing the emotions from this work has a lot to do with my life at this time. It was easier for me to relate to death and dying more than I ever have. This poem added new insights to my life more than anything else as is evidenced by all of the above analysis. In conclusion, â€Å"The Span of Life† gripped me, held me close, and brought me to a place in my mind I have never experienced from the written page. This paper provided my reflections and insight into the poem by Robert Frost by describing what caught my interest, and then evaluating the meaning of the poem using the reader-response approach to literary criticism. I look forward to using the reader-response approach in future criticisms, as I highly value the thought process that it encourages. References Clugston, R. W. (2010). Journey into literature. San Diego, California: Bridgepoint Education, Inc. Reader response criticism. (1997). In the Bloomsbury Dictionary of English Literature. Retrieved from credoreference. com/entry/blit/reader_response_criticism Wood, K. W. (2009, September 30). Poetry analysis: The span of life, by Robert Frost. [Web log comment]. Retrieved from helium. com/items/1601769-sound-supporting- sense-in-frosts-the-span-of-life

Friday, November 22, 2019

Crazy and Creative Cheating Tricks in Exams †

Crazy and Creative Cheating Tricks in Exams Many students use a bunch of cheating tricks in exams. It may look a wrong deal, but it helps students gaining high academic results. Students prefer numerous exam cheating techniques. Many ways of cheating in an exam are quite common. Those scholars, who know how important their study results can be for their further academic success, try plenty of creative and exceptional techniques. Cheating is a challenge. It requires good preparation and advanced skills. Beginners use this chance to skip learning process and get great results no matter of time spent on education. Many clever learners generate creative unparalleled ideas. They tend to develop amazing ways of double-dealing at school or college. Creative Exam Cheating Techniques Modern students know countless remarkable cheating tricks in exams. Their exam cheating techniques are impressive and unparalleled. A trick with a water bottle is probably one of the most popular ways of school exams double-dealing. It is easy to cheat and not be caught. You should simply write test answers on the backside of bottle’s label. You may write down all answers, comments, and solutions to your paper by simply watching at the bottle you put on your desk and copying them. Just read your prepared notes. Lettering small notes on fingernails remains  best way to cheat in exam used mostly by school and college girls. You can use pen or pencil writing. It is a challenge. Writing answers at nails and staying able to read these tiny records remains thought-provoking method. Keep your fingers away from teachers! Inside ridge of your hat is a good place to site questions. You can wear a baseball cap on your head, and people may never notice its hidden side. Cover your head with clever thoughts written! Stay away from this duplicitous way, if you have not used wearing baseball or other hats to school on the everyday basis because it looks suspicious. If you know the exact place where the examination will be held, make sure to visit this control place beforehand. It may give you time for preparation. Writing answers on the desk will be a solution. Desk modifications at classroom will allow leaving answers and solutions to the most difficult questions or at least one single question. Writing your tests solutions at your thighs and knees can be effective if you adore wearing skirts. It is rather girls’ mission. It is a won strategy. Do not distract your classmates once looking at your prepared notes or you may grab an attention of your teacher. Modern Inventive Cheating Techniques Modern methods of double-dealing provide students with a chance to keep tiny notes and read answers secretly. Hide your small notes carefully. Act always naturally. You know all advanced modern secret methods, and each of ways of cheating in an exam is not familiar to your professor. It will work if you follow instructions. The known Kleenex notebook is a chance for a student. This technique allows hiding solutions written at Kleenex napkin, which you may take of your purse or backpack when coughing or sneezing. Do not reach it repeatedly. Take a piece of paper and print some answers and information you may bring to bear during your school examination. Use clear tape to put solutions. Stick it on your hand or clothes. Be aware to get rid of evidence once you have written your theory test answers and fulfilled your sheet. It is easy to cover notes with your sleeves. Hope people will miss noticing your special method. Searching for the best ways of cheating in an exam, you can find a bunch of unparalleled decisions. Impressions are hard, but effective method. If you know your teacher will give you a piece of scratch white paper, then turn to the following flimflam. Carve your answers, comments, and views on a piece of paper, but put one underneath to get clear impressions. You may do it easily. It is a perfect way to hide solutions. When looking at the black paper, people will never discover you look at responses by checking typed impressions. Using sunglasses is effective. Glasses used as a mirror allow catching reflections and seeing solutions written by your classmate, who sits next to you. It is a long process that requires lots of skills. Face a simple fact that every flimflam, fake action, and a double-dealing procedure is risky matter. How to Follow Cheating Tricks and Methods Using a calculator to deal with math issues is not a prodigious example of successful academic scheme. You will feel less confident with such actions. To stay invisible with own advanced double-dealing methods, every student needs to learn many schemes and practice them before scheduled theory test. This is the easiest part. Dealing with real situation, when you need to use all your double-dealing skills and patterns is much more difficult. To guarantee unnoticed and successful dissimulation at a test, keep following the next pieces of  advice: Never use an eraser. It is impractical and excessively obvious using stuff. Keep away from bringing out your secret notes immediately after the start of school, college or university examination. It will not look well staring at familiar items. Remember to add tiny notes to your clothes. Write solutions at your baseball hat, sweater sleeves or another piece of clothes you wear to school. Write down responses on turn side of a paper, avoid front.   Impressions are more beneficial than obvious follow-ups, tiny notes, and copies because they are visible on a blank paper sheet. Read special articles about school and college double-dealing. Subscribe to get the most innovative and creative ways of school manipulates by adding your mail address to a CENSUS and Nces.Ed.Gov list of subscribers. Be always aware of light advanced false wiles. Remember to turn to effective advanced manipulating techniques and modern double-dealing wiles that bring positive outcomes. Avoid using unpractical methods. Every your decision needs to be assured by successful previous usage of the way practiced. Successful ways of cheating are always characterized by following features: Clearness; Convenience; Easiness; Effectiveness; Efficiency. Generating new actions and methods is useful. When a teacher has no idea what you are planning, you can easily false him and get a high grade without proper study hours. Keep aware of professor’s attention. Teachers may look bored, indifferent or tired, but they are still keeping checking on you. Students may be clever. Teachers have enough own manipulating things. Many modern ways of manipulating with results are unserviceable if you cannot deal with your anxiousness and worriedness during important final test. Get rid of your fear. You can win this battle. Staying aware of a bunch of modern cheating techniques is beneficial for those students, who have no time or desire to study. Dealing with school, college or university theory tests is a challenge. When trying to skip study process, learners need to show unparalleled creative skills aimed at solving question papers easily without proper knowledge. It is a personal contest. Sometimes, it is easier to learn all materials and theory to pass a final test than creating numerous efficient fraudulent practices. Take your time to choose your way! Our list of inventive cheating tricks will help you anyway if you only follow instructions provided. Get your highest grades easily with our operational tips!

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Managment Issues in the Global Family Business Essay

Managment Issues in the Global Family Business - Essay Example It has been said that most family businesses do not last more than two generations and that wealth barely lasts more than three generations (Lee 2008, p.8; Paisner 2007, p.7). Paisner (2007) notes that less than thirty percent of family-owned businesses have sustained their activities for more than two generations before shifting management, and even fewer businesses have managed to maintain their activity to the third generation. This implies that thousands of family businesses wrestle with myriad issues. Successor development, management transition, ownership transfer, creativity, and future focus are some of the issues that becloud the success of family businesses. Italian Family Business presents some of the key characteristics that determine the success or failure of family ventures all over the world. Multi, the owner of the restaurant, has to grapple with management issues and fights tooth and nail to prevent Guido from taking away the family business, something that many othe r similar businesses are grappling with. A look at the major characteristics of entrepreneurial businesses illuminates some of the gaps that might have landed Multi and his family into trouble. There is an unspoken misconception that creativity is only reserved for musicians and writers. This belief is commonplace in most family businesses. In others, there is an underlying conception regarding the usual manner of conducting business. Both mindsets can stifle business creativity, which is an antecedent to innovation, making it hard for family businesses to survive beyond two generations.

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Apples pricing strategy Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Apples pricing strategy - Essay Example However, after carefully analyzing this issue, it is safe to say that Apple should continue to price its products at a very high level for numerous reasons. One of the key reasons why Apple should continue to price its products high is due to the fact that Apple’s technology is ten years ahead of the technological curve. That enables Apple to not to avoid the pressure of competing with other firms when it comes to price since consumers are willing to allocate their funds to buy Apple products. For instance, the IPAD 2, should be priced at $500. Although other similar types of tablets that are produced by Dell or the Android are available at a lower price, it does not diminish the fact that the IPAD 2 obliterates the market with its functionality. No product in the market currently possessed two cameras, a dual-core chip, and is light-weight like the IPAD 2. Another reason why Apple should continue to price its products and services high is because of price elasticity. Price el asticity is defined as the response by the product when the price of the product is modified. If Apple was to drop the price of its new Iphone 4 from $599.99 to $399, it would be detrimental to the company itself since the demand will not drastically change, but Apple’s profit margin would be lower [1].

Saturday, November 16, 2019

Homeschool vs Public School Essay Example for Free

Homeschool vs Public School Essay In this paper I plan on describing education and how it has shaped me. How education effects everyone depending on their situation, whether they are rich, poor, white, black, healthy , or disable . There is a type of education for everybody. In all three essays the authors taught us through the characters they used, the hardships and discrimination that they insured trying to seek an education if they were not considered in the right classification in society. They have taught us that nothing can stop us and we can reach to the stars for anything we want to do as long as we have the will power. As you read my essay you will see some of my own mothers hardships that she went through for us so we could get a good education. The essay tells you how you should go about to choose your education too. It proved in the essay Finishing School by Maya Angelou, how hard it was to be poor and black and get an education or be recognized in society. Even though her Mistress tried to dishonor her by changing her name and disgracing her in front of her friends Angelou had no intention on standing still for it. She might be black but she was not to be put down . She was just as smart or smarter as her mistress as far as she was concerned and no one had any right black or white , rich or poor to discriminate or change anything about her. This was a lesson Angelou taught us to do standing up for ourselves no matter how hard it may be Our education is well worth it and so are we. In the essay Indian Education by Sherman Alexie, he had it hard on the reservation. First he was picked on in school by his peers,,which is something a lot of us go through. As he got older he turned the tables and went through many hardships in his education. Finally to succeed and going to public school. He had to change his ways and get a proper education in order to become something in life. Alexie learned from discrimination and peer pressure. He learned what he had to do to make his life better and how to improve it . All the hardships Alexie, Angelou and Smith-Yackel went through did not stop any of them, they kept going and that is what is I think what makes our education the same Teachers have a way with teaching as told in the essay The Banking Concept of Education by Paulo Concept of Education (Home School vs. Public School 3 Friere. As told in the essay Friere points out how Four times Four is Sixteen can just be words unless put to use by the student . It is not just up to the teacher to teach us but up to us to take in what the teacher is trying to teach us. However, at the same time it goes without saying if a teacher knows only one way of teaching which may be memorization then that may be the only way a student can learn . So as student I think it is up to us to learn as much as we can. The teacher can only do so much, we have to do the rest . I think that is what Friere is also trying to point out to us. It is not only up to the teacher but up to us as the student too. The essay written by Bonnie Smith-Yackel My Mother Never Worked, is the one that really touched my heart the most. This is my favorite one. My mother was like Martha in many ways. Although my mother had epilepsy all of her life she volunteered to do everything for everyone. My mom was on disability but did not let that keep her down. It was society that tried to keep her, down but she refused to let them hold her back. She was a stay at home mom and did everything for us . She babysat for neighbors, friends and family. She was there at a moment’s notice if anyone had a sick child and needed her. She was a wonderful mother and wife. She went to college for child development and got her associates degree. When we started school she went to school with us every day and volunteered from eight in the morning till we got out of school each day. My moms dream was to be a teacher but because of epilepsy and disability she could not. She could still volunteer though but not get paid for her services. This did not bother my mom. To her she was still fulfilling her job as a teacher. \ When I was a child I went to public school. I learned a lot while in elementary school and some of middle school. As I got older I cared less about my education and more about fitting in. I grew up in Michigan and went to school there until the middle of the eighth grade. Starting in about the seventh grade school started being more about who was more popular and who likes who, or look at those cheap shoes that girl is wearing. For me I was more concerned about being cool and Concept of Education (Home School vs. Public School) 4 fitting in, than caring about my education. In the middle of eighth grade my family moved to Arkansas. This was very hard on me. I missed my friends very much and didnt want to start a new school. My grades did improve for a while, but that was only because I didnt have any friends to focus my attention on. I focused more on my school work. However this did not last long. I didnt fit in because it was a very small town and I was a shy kid. I then started skipping school. When my mom found out she decided to put me in home school. Education was important to her and my dad. She always wanted to make sure I succeeded in life She got me up every morning just like as if I was going to school. I had the same hours as any other student in public school. My vacations were based around the public school. If the public school had a snow day or holiday I was allowed to have that day off. Home school was good for me because I had one on one teaching which I did not have in the public school. I needed that because of me being so shy and at times I would not raise my hand if I had questions. In home school I had my mom and dad to help me. I could focus better on my school work because I was not distracted or afraid of not getting anything done . I had hands on learning with my mom, and my dad incorporated projects to go with her lessons. I remember my dad and making a computer out of sugar cubes and Styrofoam , volcano, castles out of toilet paper rolls and a lot of other projects. I was never really good in English although believe it or not my mom was very good . My mom taught me the basics of school work, while my dad taught me about cars , how to plant a garden, and taking care of animals such as pigs, chickens, cows. We had a garden with fruits and vegetables, I learned to cook for large family. I was in FFA and I won the BBQ chicken semi- finals. I learned how to live in society. I worked and had a job too. My mom taught me much more then what you can learn in a book . She taught me lives lessons just like Martha taught her children in My Mother Never Worked. She gave me the skills I needed. I learned to use those skills and so here I am today working at Lakeland Hospital now for 10 years Concept of Education (Home School vs. Public School) 5 and finally going to college and studying for a nursing Career. Audience Analysis With education comes how we the parent, teacher and student will educate or be educated. One of the toughest decisions that youre going to face as a parent is that youre going to have to decide where to send your kids to school. However, most parents at least consider the choice to choose either private school, home school or public school. You as a parent can weigh the options of what you think would be better for you and your childs education. To do this you and your child might want to weight the factors that play a part in the pros and cons of public school and ho me school and what is best for you and your child. As a parent you may feel that public schools have too many peer problems. Kids may argue with peers or pick up bad habits in public schools. There are so many children to one teacher it is hard to give one on one to the child that is quiet and needs help but wont ask and they get lost in the school system. Your child may have health issues, like diabetes or other disabilities therefore when lunchtime comes it is hard for your child if he or she has diabetes or foods he or she can not have and is forced to eat what there or just take a sandwich from home and be the outsider. As a parent or student you need to weigh what is best for the both of you. Home schooling may be the answer in this case. Home schooling is a great way to bring a family closer together, but you have to make sure your kids (and you) are getting the social interaction they need. You can set a school schedule that suits your family, travel together when its best for all of you and enjoy more family and life together . You also need to make sure you have the type of relationship with your child to listen to instruction from you as a teacher instead to a parent, You as a parent have the option to teach your child anything from bible (which most public schools do not allow) to the basics school book skills to life skills. As a working parent public school is probably better . Transportation is provided, so there is no need Concept of Education (Home School vs. Public School) 6 to worry about having a car. School buses will pick up your child to and from school. For some parents the choice is easy because of the funds and the availability of the parents time. Public schools provide the kids with an opportunity to great activities , this is important to many of you as parents and as students . Many of you want your children in activities and think this is important. Public school gives you this option , so this you might want to take into consideration also. All around development is easier in public schools. If you are worried about feeding your child at school and you are low income, they have low cost or free breakfast and lunches for your child too. So basically it is up to you on the education of your children. There are pros and cons. In Conclusion: Some kids do best when they are able to combine different options to complete their education. In order to choose the right type of school, you need to weigh all of the options open to you. My sister Amy went and graduated from public school with honors. My sister Christal received a GED., she choose to work. School was hard for her. I have an adopted sister Janice who was in special ed , she went to public school but was in special classes and received a special diploma . Now days you can do both of two worlds my sister (Chasity) has PCOS and Diabetes which made her miss a lot of school so she is doing through Coloma High School , a Coloma Virtual Academy which is a home school but works with the public school too. . She goes to school to pick classes, participates if she wishes, can graduate with her class, but her Doctors appointment’s and her health problems will no longer prevent her from her education. So my mom is home schooling her in a different way than she did me. They made a different choice of education for her. They both were good choices but for different reasons. That is why you should look into the situation before deciding what to do. As a parent your child is not the same as anyone else so they may require a different type of education just like my sisters and I did. It is you and your childs choice

Thursday, November 14, 2019

Dysphagia :: Health, Diseases

Dysphagia Surviving a severe stoke often leads to a new problem. Almost half of patient affected by severe stroke develop difficulty in swallowing that is known as dysphagia. People in this condition have trouble in holding food and fluid in their mouth or swallowing. When food passes from the mouth into oropharynx and laryngopharynx, it enters the esophagus and muscular contraction propels it to the stomach, but when process goes wrong the food and fluids re-enter the esophagus which is known as reflux (Nozarka, 2010). There are factors that disrupt normal swallowing. These include stroke, age-related changes, medication and neurological disease (Nozarko, 2010). Signs of dysphagia are cough during eating, change in voice tone or quality after swallowing, abnormal movements of the mouth, tongue or lips and slow, weak, precise, or uncoordinated speech. Other signs of the disease are abnormal gag, delayed swallowing, incomplete oral clearance or pocketing, regurgitation, pharyngeal pooling, delayed or absent trigger of swallow, and inability to speak consistently (Potter & Perry, 2009). Dysphagia can leads to aspiration pneumonia. During aspiration, the food or fluid passes through the vocal folds and enters the airway. It can be caused by impaired laryngeal closure or overflow of food or liquids retained in pharynx. This increases the risk of choking and aspiration pneumonia. Through coughing the body tries to free from aspiration that helps to clear food and fluid from lungs. However, silent aspiration is very dangerous because food and fluid penetrate the airway and move deep into the lungs that cause major respiratory problems. Dysphagia also results to malnutrition and dehydration. This increases the risk for pressure ulcer (Nozarko, 2010). Assessment of the gathered data leads to a nursing diagnosis. A client who is a stroke survivor complains in difficulty when swallowing that is associated to deficit in oral, pharyngeal, or esophageal structure or function. In this case the nursing diagnosis is impaired swallowing related to neurological problem (Ackley & Ladwig, 2011). As a caregiver of a client in this condition, setting goals and outcome is needed. The goal and outcome for a client suffering from dysphagia are; the client can effectively swallow without choking within seven days, and the client will be free from aspiration evidence by clear lung sound within five days (Ackley & Ladwig, 2011). To meet the goals and outcomes for this patient first determine the severity of dysphagia. â€Å"If a person has mild dysphagia, simply provide a suitable and advice about eating slowly and sitting upright while eating may enable the person to remain well nourished [sic] and problem free† (Nozarka, 2010, para.

Monday, November 11, 2019

Alfred Binet

Among the most prominent persons in mental testing is Alfred Binet, who was born July 11, 1857, at Nice, France, and died in Paris on October 18, 1911. Binet completed a licence in law in 1878 and then pursued, but did not complete, a medical degree. Binet’s early interest in psychology was influenced by Charcot’s work in hypnosis. Binet then pursued other experimental topics, eventually arriving at his interest in mental testing. For much of his career, Binet served as director of the Laboratory of Physiological Psychology at the Sorbonne.Following a period of experimental research with Victor Henri, he accepted a collaborative research arrangement with Theodore Simon. Simon’s proximity to mentally retarded subjects and Binet’s membership with the Society for the Psychological Study of the Child formed the basis for significant research. Binet’s active involvement with the society led to his appointment to a study commission of the Ministry of Publ ic Instruction â€Å"from the vantage point of which he saw the compelling need to find a way to differentiate those children who could learn normally from those who could not† (Wolf, 1973, pp.21–22). After failing to obtain academic positions at three French universities, Binet produced with Theodore Simon, in 1905, the first intelligence scale â€Å"oriented to ‘tasks or behavior’ rather than to so-called faculties† (Wolf, 1973, p. 29). The scale was part of a more comprehensive process for differentiating normal and retarded children, and it was revised in 1908 and 1911. His test was introduced in America by Henry Goddard, who developed his own revision. The most popular American revision was that of Louis Terman in 1916. Binet’s scales ingrained the concept of mental age in testing for decades.The first experiments to catch his fancy involved the two-point threshold: the simultaneous stimulation of the skin by two compass points, and the determination of the conditions under which they were perceived as one or recognized as two. This procedure had already been the subject of much experimental investigation, and early psychologists had learned that the separation of points required to produce a sensation of â€Å"twoness† varies greatly with the part of the body stimulated—for example, it is some thirty times greater for the small of the back than for the tip of the index finger.Several theories had been proposed to account for these variations, focusing on the presumably varying distribution of nerves in different parts of the body. (Thorndike, R. M. , and D. F. Lohman, 1990). Binet conducted a few simple two-point threshold experiments on himself and some friends, and concluded that the theories he had read about were wrong in some of their details. He quickly wrote an article describing his experiments and offering a â€Å"corrected† theory. Always a graceful and persuasive writer, he succeede d in getting this published.Any pleasure at seeing his words in print was soon curtailed, however, because his article caught the critical attention of one Joseph Delboeuf (1831-1896), a Belgian physiologist who had done some important work on the two-point threshold which had been overlooked by Binet. Delboeuf published a critique stating that his own much moresystematic experiments did not agree with several of Binet's findings, and showing that he had already published a much more sophisticated version of Binet's theory long before.Binet had obviously rushed prematurely into print, and Delboeuf publicly humiliated him for it. (Thorndike, R. M. , and D. F. Lohman, 1990). Even Delboeuf's attack could not diminish Binet's ardor for psychology, however, and his next passion became the associationist psychology of John Stuart Mill, whom he would later call â€Å"my only master in psychology. † Binet was persuaded by Mill's arguments about the potentially unlimited explanatory p ower of associationism, and said as much in his second venture into psychological publication. (Joy A.Palmer, Liora Bresler, David E. Cooper, 2003) Yet Binet was once again treading upon dangerous ground. Associationism as a psychological doctrine clearly had its merits, but by 1883 much evidence had already accumulated to show that it could not stand as a complete explanation of mental phenomena, even after any possible innate factors were placed aside. In particular, associationism was ill equipped to account for varying motivational influences on thought, or for many of the unconscious phenomena that were coming to increasing attention at that time.Thus the laws of association were hard pressed to explain, by themselves, why a particular starting thought can lead to totally different trains of associations, depending on the motivational state of the individual. Phenomena such as post-hypnotic amnesia posed another difficulty for exclusively associationistic theory. When a recentl y hypnotized subject was asked what happened while he was hypnotized and failed to remember, he provided an example of disassociation of ideas.The stimulus of the question failed to bring in its train the associated ideas and memories, including the answer, which one would normally expect. Mill's laws of association had nothing to say about how ideas could become disconnected, or â€Å"dissociated,† from each other. (Joy A. Palmer, Liora Bresler, David E. Cooper, 2003) This time Binet recognized the deficiencies in his psychology without help from a Delboeuf, and took steps to remedy them. But even though he was soon to augment his associationism, he never lost respect for its great though incomplete explanatory power.Years later, when he attacked the problem of assessing intelligence, he would not be restricted, as Galton and Cattell had been, to the consideration of presumably innate factors such as sensory acuity or neurological efficiency. Instead, Binet would argue that â€Å"intelligence† whatever else it was could never be isolated from the actual experiences, circumstances, and personal associations of the individual in question. (Joy A. Palmer, Liora Bresler, David E. Cooper, 2003) Among Binet’s achievements was the founding (with Dr. Henri Beaunis) of the first French psychology journal, L’Annee psychologique, in 1895.He was a significant figure in early French psychology, and the studies of his two daughters likely influenced the subsequent research of Jean Piaget. Though Binet was neither trained nor served as a school psychologist, he has had an enormous impact on the practice of school psychology. References: Joy A. Palmer, Liora Bresler, David E. Cooper. Fifty Major Thinkers on Education: From Confucius to Dewey; Routledge, 2003 Thorndike, R. M. , and D. F. Lohman. A century of ability testing. Chicago: Riverside, 1990 Wolf, T. H. Alfred Binet. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1973

Saturday, November 9, 2019

Scarlett Letter Sin Essay

The Different Shades of Sins An Irish Proverb states â€Å"All Sins cast long shadows. † Throughout the novel, The Scarlet Letter, Nathaniel Hawthorne viewed the sins as a spectrum of many colors. The novel revolves around Hester Prynne, who is convicted of adultery in colonial Salem by the Puritan society. For her punishment, she is condemned to wear the red scarlet letter â€Å"A† on her chest as a permanent sign of her sin.Exposing to sin and the temptation of its concealment in capricious degrees, Nathaniel Hawthorne demonstrated the different shades of sins through the actions of several main characters, Hester Prynne, Arthur Dimmesdale, and Roger Chillingworth. In the beginning of the book, we learn Hester Prynne committed the sin of adultery. Although meant to crush Hester’s spirit, she is proud of her sin and becomes a strong, tough minded character. While the author Hawthorne has Puritan heritage, he portrays Hester as one of the most â€Å"able† of people in Salem because she confessed her sin.While the religious and high ranking citizens of Salem continue to ridicule her for being and adulteress, â€Å"many people refused to interpret the scarlet A by its original signification† (168). The product of this sin was Hester’s daughter Pearl. Unlike the way of the Puritans, Hester creates â€Å"beauty, shining through the gorgeous robes† (87) of Pearl, and thus Pearl stands out in crowds. To Hester, her sin was marrying someone she did not love, Roger Chillingworth. In the eyes of Hester and Dimmesdale, they are not â€Å"the worst sinners in the world.There is one worse than even the polluted priest! That old man's revenge has been blacker than my sin. He has violated, in cold blood, the sanctity of a human heart. Thou and I, Hester, never did so! † (225) Going against the heart is the greatest sin possible to Hester and Dimmesdale and their â€Å"sin† was between two people who truly loved e ach other. Reverend Arthur Dimmesdale is the father of Pearl and the one who committed the sin of adultery with Hester. As a man of high power in Salem, he does not confess the sin and the mental guilt would slowly kill him.Eventually, â€Å"his moral force was abased into more than childish weakness† (105) Through the ability Hester has shown and the miserable state of Dimmesdale, Hawthorne shows the power of confessing a sin. In an attempt to escape for their pasts, Hester, Pearl, and Dimmesdale plan to leave Salem. However, Roger Chillingworth, Hester’s legal husband, also catches a ride on the same boat. Returning to Salem, Hester, Dimmesdale, and Pearl go the scaffold, the place where Hester is originally condemned. In his dieing moments, Dimmesdale confesses his sin in front of the townspeople while also revealing a self inflicted â€Å"A† on his chest.Of all the sinners, Roger Chillingworth was the biggest. First, his sin of marrying a younger women and s ending her over sees causes the adultery claim. When he arrives in Salem and learns of this, he commits his biggest sin†¦ violating the human heart. Rather than Hester’s adultery being her sin, Hawthorne goes against Puritan values by making violating the heart Hester’s true sin. At first, Chillingworth asks Hester to â€Å"speak out the name of thy fellow-sinner and fellow-sufferer! † (56) When she refuses, Chillingworth becomes an evil man, becoming uglier by the day.This shows that an unconfessed sin will kill you. Eventually, he becomes aware of the adultery with Hester and becomes Dimmesdale’s â€Å"leech. † After Dimmesdale dies, Chillingworth dies because he has no reason to live anymore. Based on Puritan beliefs, sin is an inescapable aspect of life. Hawthorne shows that Dimmesdale and Chillingworth both die because of their hidden sin. Contrary to this Hester, who confessed, lives a long, happy life. Since sin is inescapable, the only way to make up for it is by confessing or else the sin swill shadow you forever.

Thursday, November 7, 2019

Nietzsche Vs. Hobbes Essays - Philosophy, Religion, Free Essays

Nietzsche Vs. Hobbes Essays - Philosophy, Religion, Free Essays Nietzsche Vs. Hobbes ANDREW LANGILLE GRADE 13 PHILOSOPHY COURSE, How are the philosophies of Nietzsche and Hobbes different on topics of Christianity, Human Nature, and Morality. The philosophies of Nietzsche and Hobbes are radically different, Hobbes philosophy is dominated by loyalty to the crown, riddled with references to the Christian scriptures, and a belief that life is nasty, brutish, and short(Leviathan, 133); while Nietzsches philosophy was dominated by the pessimistic Schopenhauer, a belief that the human race was a herd, and that God is dead(Thus Spoke Zarathustra, S. 13). Hobbes and Nietzsche look at the world completely differently. Hobbes was a Christian who defended the bible, while Nietzsche called Christianity the one great curse(The Anti-Christ, s. 62). On the topic of human nature Hobbes thought life to be a warre...of every man, against every man(Leviathan, 232) while Nietzsche took a nihilistic approach and declared that human nature is just a euphemism for inertia, cultural conditioning, and what we are before we make something of ourselves...(Human, all to Human, 67). On morality these two philosophers have opposing views, Hobbes views on morality were straight out of Exodus, while Nietzsche holds that morality is a hindrance to the development of new and better customs: it makes stupid [people](Daybreak, s. 19). These two philosophers lived at different times, in different locations, and their differing philosophies reflect the lives that they lived. Thomas Hobbes was born into an English upper class family in 1588, his father was the parish priest. Thomas was educated by his uncle until he was fifteen, when he was sent to Oxford to continue his studies. In 1608 he finished his formal education and took up with the son of Lord Cavendish, they undertook an adventure which saw them travel across Europe. Hobbes remained in England until the start of the English civil war when he fled to France. The civil war took place from 1642 till 1649, this conflict had a profound affect on Hobbes, particularly the execution of Charles I in 1649. All his writings after this event reflect Hobbes quest to find a peaceful, stable form of government. Hobbes died in 1679. Fredrich Nietzsche was born into a upper class family in Germany, on 15 October 1844, his father was tutor for the royal family and also a priest. Nietzsche father died when he was twelve, this had life-long impact on him. At age eight-teen he discovered the philosopher Schopenhauer, the basis for much of his early work, and gave up Christianity. He was educated at the University of Bonn, at the age of twenty-five Nietzsche was appointed Professor of Philosophy at the University of Basle. He became close friends with composer Richard Wanger, whos work he enthusiastically supported. Nietzsche most productive years were to be his last, he drove insane by syphilis and died at the dawn of this century. Nietzsche declared in that modern Christian civilization is sick and must be overcome(The Anti-Christ, 156), Hobbes would have found that excerpt to be repugnant having declared that God...when he speaks to any subject...he ought to be obeyed (Leviathan, 492). Hobbes was a Christian, while Nietzsche was a atheist, their views on Christianity are completely opposite. Nietzsche held the belief throughout his life that Christianity has taken the side of everything weak, base, ill-constituted, it has made an ideal out of opposition to the preservative instincts of a strong life; it has depraved the reason even of the intellectually strongest natures by teaching men to feel the supreme values of intellectuality as sinful, as misleading, as temptations,(The Anti-Christ, S. 5) Professor Howard Rainer of Davis University states that Nietzsche was uncompromisingly anti-Christian, for Christianity was the most potent force against those values which he prized most highly. Nietzsche felt that Christianity would hinder the emergence of the overman(The Will to Power, 546), a human being that follows their own path and not the herds. Hobbes while being a Christian to the end, had a rather pessimistic view of it; Professor Ian Johnston of Malaspina University states that Hobbes believed the public religion of the artificial state must serve the need for security to protect the selfish economic interests of the individuals composing it. Hobbes view of Christianity was quite radical for his

Tuesday, November 5, 2019

How to Advertise an Event in College

How to Advertise an Event in College College campuses are legendary for the high number of programs that take place on campus every day. Whether its an internationally acclaimed speaker or a local film screening, theres nearly always something happening on campus. If youre the one planning an event, however, you know that getting people to come can be as much of a challenge as coordinating the program itself. So just how can you advertise your event in a way that inspires people to attend? Answer the Basics: Who, What, When, Where, and Why You could spend hours painting a poster advertising your event ... but if you forget to write down what date the program is, youll feel like a chump. Consequently, make sure the basic information is available on each and every piece of advertising you put out. Who is going to be at the event, and who is sponsoring it (or otherwise putting it on)? What will happen at the event, and what can attendees expect? When is the event? (Side note: Its helpful to write both the day and the date. Writing Tuesday, October 6th can make sure everyone is clear about when the event is happening.) How long will it last? Where is the event? Do people need to RSVP or buy tickets in advance? If so, how and where? And most important, why will people want to attend? What will they learn/experience/take away/gain from going? What will they miss out on if they dont go? Know the Best Places to Advertise Is social media big on your campus? Do people read emails announcing events or just delete them? Is the newspaper a good place to put an ad? Will a poster in the quad catch peoples attention, or will it just get lost amidst a sea of butcher paper? Know what will stand out on your campus and get creative. Know Your Audience If youre advertising something thats, for example, political in nature, make sure you reach out to people on campus who are more likely to be politically involved or interested. When youre planning a political event, posting a flyer in the politics department might be a particularly smart idea even if youre not posting flyers in any other academic department. Go to meetings of student clubs and talk to other student leaders to promote your program, too, so that you can personally get the word out and answer any questions people might have. Advertise Food if Youre Going to Have it Available Its no secret that providing food at a college event can drastically increase attendance. Having food, of course, can be a definite draw but it isnt an absolute necessity. If you are providing food, make sure its done in a way that encourages people to stay for the whole event and not just sneak in and grab a slice of pizza from the back of the room. You want event attendees, after all, not just moochers. Find Other Student Groups to Cosponsor Your Event Theres a pretty direct correlation between the number of people who know about your program and the number of people who show up. Consequently, if you can work with other student groups in the planning, you can outreach directly to each groups members. On many campuses, too, cosponsorship can lead to increased funding opportunities meaning youll have more resources to promote and advertise your event. Let Your Professors Know While it can be scary to figure out how to talk to your professors, its usually just fine once you try it. Remember: Faculty members were college students at one point, too! Theyll likely find your program interesting and may even advertise it in their other classes. They can also mention it to other professors and help get the word around. Let Administrators Know The hall director in your residence hall may know you by name, but she may not know that youre super involved in a certain club and planning a major event next week. Drop by and let her know whats going on so she can let other residents know when she interacts with them, too. You likely interact with lots of administrators throughout the day; feel free to promote your program to them (and anyone else who will listen) as much as possible!

Saturday, November 2, 2019

Discussion 4 Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Discussion 4 - Assignment Example In essence, the statement could be saying that the facts and realities of inductive arguments are not as important as those of deductive arguments but this could not be entirely true. Once the latter is accepted as true, it would mean that inductive arguments do not have the merit of being taken seriously. The fact that the premises of all arguments are linked with its conclusion in establishing the true in an argument is a very important analogy. This is because the conclusion of any given statement is as important as the premises. Under no circumstance should it be acceptable that the truth of a statement be judged merely based on the conclusion of the statement. The reason for this argument is that if that happens, the need to follow the logical arguments and reasoning in the structure of any given statement or argument will not be necessary and for that matter, it will be unnecessary to pay attention to statements till they get to their ends. The comment made in the paragraph above applies both in the situation of both deductive and inductive arguments. In effect, inductive and deductive arguments could both be said to have a very strong merit based on the relation made between the premises and the conclusion (Michigan State University, 2012). Furthermore, it would be emphasized that the from the last comment, the basis of as to whether an argument is inductive or deductive may not be as relevant as whether or not the substance of the argument could be trusted as the truth. In essence, inductive and deductive could both be trusted or mistrusted depending on the facts or ideologies that the arguments carry. This means that listeners should not be complecent in their judgments of the meanings that statements and arguments carry unless of course they have weighed all sides of the arguments and untaken background checks to verify the authenticity of the arguments. The final comment will be an example