Saturday, May 23, 2020

Minimum Benefits Of Minimum Wages - 1399 Words

Minimum wages are described as â€Å"the minimum amount of remuneration that an employer is required to pay wage earners for the work/services performed during a given tenure, which cannot be reduced by collective agreement or an individual contract†. Minimum wages can be established by statute, competent decision authority, a wage board, a wage council, or by industrial or labour courts. The significance of minimum wages is to shield workers against disproportionately low pay. They help safeguard an equitable and just share of the fruits of progress to all, and a minimum living wage to all who are employed and in need of such protection. Minimum wages can also be a part of a policy to overcome poverty and reduce inequality, including those†¦show more content†¦This potential loss decreases both firms’ surplus and workers’ surplus. The increase in job search will waste resources and time which contributes to the inefficiency of minimum wage. Dead-weight loss highlights the loss in possible employment, which could have been achieved by labour market approaching equilibrium. Free-Market With Minimum-wage Case 1 With Minimum-wage Case 2 Consumer Surplus 1-2-3 1 1 Producer Surplus 8-9 2-3-4-8-9 2-9 Government Supports - - LS-LD Cost of Government Purchase - - 3-4-5-6-7 Total Surplus 1-2-3-8-9 1-2-9 1-2-9 Dead-weight Loss - 3-8 3-5-6-7-8 In both cases of minimum wage, there is an overall increase in labour supply and an overall reduction in demand of labour. Hence, implementing or increasing minimum wage results in loss of jobs theoretically. However, it also relies on the country s economic activity which may or may not result in loss of jobs. Additionally, case 2 reflects the scenario where the government delivers unemployment benefits to its unemployed citizens. In this case the dead-weight loss is catered by the government which in return puts a great deal of financial burden on the government. Observing with the perspective of the general population - Improved minimum standard of living – It facilitates the lowest paid strata of the society to desire for a better standard of living. - Incentive to work – It encourages unemployed population to find job, due of higher returns for theirShow MoreRelatedMinimum Benefits Of Minimum Wage1359 Words   |  6 PagesMinimum wage is described as  Ã¢â‚¬Å"the minimum amount of remuneration that an employer is required to pay wage earners for the work/services performed during a given tenure, which cannot be reduced by collective agreement or an individual contract†. Minimum wage can be established by statute, competent decision authority, a wage board, a wage council, or by industrial or labour courts.   The significance of minimum wage is to shield workers against disproportionately low pay. They help safeguard an equitableRead MoreBenefits Of Minimum Wage1014 Words   |  5 Pages Minimum wage is a struggle for many Americans and I believe it needs to be raised. The minimum wage of the United States is $7.25 an hour. It is a rate that isn’t letting many Americans live life comfortably. If the minimum wage was changed even a merely $3.75 it would change people’s lives and will let many people get by. The minimum wage of $7.25 has stayed the same since 2009 and there hasn’t been any effort by the government to change it. Many states have increased their minimum wage, but IRead MoreThe And Benefits Of A Minimum Wage2730 Words   |  11 Pages The Affects and Advantages of a Minimum Wage 180 Hour 3 Shakopee High School A common saying known throughout the business world, â€Å"time is money†, which applies to every aspect of every work place, yet a something is missing from that saying. The missing element is just how much your time is worth. Recently with new raises in minimum wage the United States is taking steps to come more closely to the equilibrium of how much employees should be paid. With the many, many issues inRead MoreThe Benefits Of The Minimum Wage2000 Words   |  8 PagesThe advantages of the Minimum wage law outweigh its disadvantages. Introduction Minimum wage law is the lowest salary that employers need to pay to workers and United Kingdom legislate the minimum wage law in 1998. It is a way to improve the living condition of those low-income workers by raising their wage and also assure they can afford their daily consumption. The rate of the minimum wage is not fixed, it will increases as the living rate increases. The idea of minimum wage law is usually regardedRead MoreBenefits And Benefits Of Minimum Wage1568 Words   |  7 Pagespoverty wages and provide few if any benefits (Low, 2015). The lowest income bracket has been getting increasingly poorer and since 1968, the real value of the minimum wage has progressively declined (Dietrich, 2004). Most low-wage employers do not offer health insurance to their employees and if they do, premiums are too high for employees to afford. Sick pay and retirement benefits are not likely to exist in these types of jobs. Due to a lack of training or continuing education benefits, most workersRead MoreThe Benefits Of Raising The Minimum Wage1656 Words   |  7 Pagesto be should the minimum wage be raised or should it be lowered or eliminated altogether. From where I stand minimum wage should be raised. Everyone is more successful when people are paid a living wage. Changes to the minimum wage would strengthen the economy and business, Lift Americans out of poverty, and will be unlikely to significantly impact prices. The only way to grow the economy in a way that benefits 90% is to change the structure of the economy. Paying people a fair wage is a sign of respectRead MoreBenefits Of Minimum Wage Law990 Words   |  4 Pageshave a law in order to complete the bare minimum to afford a decent living condition, food for their families and even to put on decent clothes to keep themselves warm. The minimum wage law was set so employees have a decent living wage and are not in complete ruins after working rough conditions. There are many benefits towards the minimum wage law that was set in 1938 by President Roosevelt. It helps laborers who work in rough rugged conditions have a minimum set salary and have them able to affordRead MoreThe Benefits Of Raising The Minimum Wage706 Words   |  3 Pages Minimum wage is a difficult number to decide on because it affects different income earning citizens in different ways. According to Principles of Microeconomics, by N. Gregory Mankiw, minimum wage is a law that establishes the lowest price for labor that and employer may pay (Mankiw 6-1b). Currently, the minimum wage in the United States is $7.25 per hour. For many years politicians and citizens have argued on what should be the minimum wage that would benefit the economy and society in generalRead MoreBenefits And Disadvantages Of Minimum Wage1957 Words   |  8 Pagesto pay wages inferior to a certain threshold. This activity has important effects on the labor market and even on the global economy. The average wage levels influence not only the rates of employment, and the living conditions of part of the payroll, also a country’s level of education, how much outsourcing is done to countries where (minimum) wages are lower, and even market prices and therefore rates of in flation. Around the world, and for more than a century now, â€Å"since the first minimum wageRead MoreBenefits Of Raising Minimum Wage1291 Words   |  6 Pages In recent years, the demand for an increased minimum wage has erupted across the nation. During the ongoing debate, a few states, cities, counties, and companies have taken the initiative to raise the minimum wage of $7.25 per hour to the varying wages of $7.50-$11.50 per hour. According the United States Labor Department, 29 states and the District of Columbia pay above the minimum federal level of $7.25 per hour. The raising of the minimum wage has numerous supporters; however, there are individuals

Tuesday, May 19, 2020

Domestic Violence On Children

Sample details Pages: 14 Words: 4211 Downloads: 7 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Statistics Essay Did you like this example? Domestic Violence on Children Dissertation The Nature of Domestic Violence Domestic violence has been defined as: a continuum of behaviour ranging from verbal abuse, physical, and sexual assault, to rape and even homicide. The vast majority of such violence, and the most severe and chronic incidents, are perpetrated by men against women and their children. (Department of Health [DoH] 2000) In most cases the violence is against women by their partners or spouse and affects children belonging to one or both of them. Children can become victims of domestic violence either through being directly targeted or witnessing scenes of domestic violence between parents and their partners. At least 750,000 children a year witness violence within the home, and nearly three quarters of children on child protection registers live in households where domestic violence occurs. (Dept. of Health, 2003). Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Domestic Violence On Children | Criminology Dissertations" essay for you Create order Abuse and violence may be physical, emotional, psychological, financial or sexual, and may be constant or spasmodic. Yet domestic violence is experienced by individuals from every class, race, religion and culture the world over (British Medical Association [BMA] 1999). While severe cases of domestic violence can often lead to women being hospitalised, others remain undetectable to the public eye, leaving women who live in constant fear of their partner or spouse, trying to avoid degradation. A study by Mayhew found that psychological and emotional abuse might be constant whilst the physical violence is intermittent (Mayhew et al 1996). For the child or young person this becomes a way of life one without stability or security and this can lead to behavioural problems and even crime. The focus of this dissertation is on the impact of domestic violence on the lives of children and young people. Research took place in the Hammersmith and Fulham area of London. The main body of research is secondary, from journals, books, and internet sources. The primary research is in the form of 2 sets of questionnaires handed out to 40people. The first questionnaire uses a design based on a survey done by Doctors from the University of Arizona, which has already proven tube successful and reliable. The questionnaire consists of four questions: 1. Have you ever been in a relationship with someone who has hit you, kicked you, slapped you, punched you, or threatened to hurt you? 2. CURRENTLY? 3. When you were pregnant did anyone ever physically hurt you? 4. Are you in a relationship with someone who yells at you, calls you names, or puts you down? (Wahl et al 2004: 25). The questionnaire was carried out on a random sample of the public. 20were handed to people outside Fulham Broadway tube station during rush-hour. People were only given the form if they said they had children, and were asked to fill it in on their way home from work or when they got back, and were given an sae. This method was chosen for reasons of personal safety as opposed to going round door to door. If the respondent answered yes to all questions then they were said to have suffered a prolonged period of domestic violence. In order to investigate the effects of domestic violence on adolescents questionnaire was devised for teenagers (see Appendix 1) and 20 were handed out at a youth centre in Hammersmith to be filled out anonymously. The forms were then collected at the end of the day. The second section of primary research was designed to be more specific. It was decided to approach an association specifically setup for women who have suffered domestic violence, which is actively involved in policy work in the UK. The chairwoman was approached and asked whether she could arrange for a sample preferably those with family in a black community who would consider completing questionnaire for a research study on domestic violence and its effects on young people and children. The chairwoman gave the researcher four names and email addresses of people who were willing to be contacted. However, the respondents and the association were to remain anonymous for reasons of confidentiality and security. The respondents used pseudonyms for their responses. As the sample was small, yet relevant, it was decided to use a more lengthy questionnaire, and interview the four subjects in more depth about their experience. Aside from the emotional effects, questions were designed to explore how domestic violence can be detrimental to learning and health. (see Appendix 2). Organisations and Government Policy There are many voluntary organisations such as Shelter, which provide counselling and places of refuge for women and children suffering domestic violence. Beneath are listed other services in the Hammersmith and Fulham area: Refuge provides a Freephone 24-hour National Domestic Violence Helpline Community efforts, such as the Peace Week. The protection from Harassment Act 1997 Prosecutions from the Criminal Justice Act 1998 where the victim need not appear in court, but her statement used instead. Developing police strategy for collecting evidence at the scene (Home Office 2000). What happens to children in cases of Domestic Violence? The aftermath of domestic problems can be as damaging as the incidents or episodes themselves. Children can be present during an arrest of apparent, witness a parent breaking restraining orders and their reactions to court decisions. In these situations children can be used as pawns or in worst cases even be taken as hostages. (Devote and Smith, 2002 ). In a qualitative study on the effects of domestic violence on children, McGees (2000) study, along with other research, revealed that: Children do not have to experience physical abuse to experience long-term negative effects of living where extreme controlling behaviour and abuse are the norm. In order to protect themselves, children may take the fathers side in an argument, and may themselves be abusive to their mother (Kelly 1996). Children regularly experience a sense of total powerlessness, wishing they could assist their mother, which may produce harm to their long-term emotional wellbeing. This may later cause revenge fantasies, but at the time often leads them to have an overpowering need to stay in the room. (Shipway 2004: 116). It is not unusual for the child or young person to blame themselves for what is happening to their mother, particularly as the partner may have used their behaviour as a reason for losing his temper. (Ibid). Young people sometimes fear social services will remove them from the home if it is known violence and abuse exists. Gaudi (2001:27) provided evidence confirming that two-thirds of the residents in refuges are children. However, this does not account for the hundreds who are afraid to report violence. The threat of leaving their family home, however unstable, is often not well received by children, and many would rather put up with domestic violence than remove themselves from it. Domestic Violence in the Black community Domestic violence in the black community has been recognised as being less likely to be reported mainly because women and young people do not wish to threaten the stability of their position within their community. Women from African Caribbean communities are less likely to report their experiences and therefore they experience prolonged abuse over a long, or sometimes indeterminate, time frame. One of the critical debates concerning domestic violence is the idea of getting used to a way of being treated and thus for it to become the norm within family life. An article written by a survivor of domestic violence said of her early years in Jamaica: in my experience it was commonplace to hear of or even witness women/men being beaten by their spouses or partners in public view. (Unknown author. She comments of violence in the UK, saying that particularly within the Black community, the fighting may not overspill onto the streets but it does occur, behind closed doors. Black communities in London are well established and people living within them rely on the social structure of their area. The idea of leaving the area to live in a refuge where they might not understand English speaking people so well is an intimidating prospect for many. Thus, some women who do not speak English might delay seeking help, finding the language a barrier between them and British speaking organisations. Interpreters can be used, but involving a third partying a womans private life can be an off-putting idea. Furthermore, religious or cultural beliefs might forbid divorce, and religious community leaders mostly being men, only some speak out about domestic violence. In the case of migrant women and children who suffer domestic abuse there often is the threat of not being able to stay in the UK if they separate from their partner. An even greater threat is that the partner might abduct the children and take them abroad. (GreenwichMulti-Agency Domestic Violence Forum. 2003). One of the most powerful psychological effects of domestic violence, physical or verbal, is the victims distorted perspective of their abuser. Often women will make excuses for the person who attacks them blaming it on themselves or on drink or drugs or other stresses within their relationship. This comes with an inability to prioritise their personal safety and wellbeing, and that of their children, believing that the emotional attachment between the family members might be enough to overcome the presence of violence. Consequently, the effects of the mothers decision to remain within the abusive relationship means that the child remains continually at risk from psychological and physical hurt. The effects of exposure to violence in the home are extensive and not always immediately evident. For the individual exposure to domestic violence can precipitate personality disorders, addictive disorders, substance abuse, and even physical disorders. And as studies have shown, many violent individuals have themselves been victims of domestic violence and abuse, unable to break out of the cycle. Children and adolescents with violent parent(s) are without the presence of a mentor on which to model their behaviour. This can lead to further social problems such as an inability to integrate with peers. A young person who has experienced the insecurity of a violent home life might seek security in other forms such as substance abuse, and gangs and gang violence. Statistics The Home Office survey 2004 reported on a questionnaire used by the2001 British Crime Survey. It asked a nationally representative sample of 22,463 women and men aged between 16 and 59 whether they had been subject to domestic violence during their lifetime and during the preceding year. For relevance to this dissertation the following graphs were selected from the survey: Source: Home Office Survey 2004: 12. The survey surmised that since the age of 16 45% of women and 26%of men were subject to domestic violence at least once in their lifetime. (Home Office 2004: 8). Of these 18.6% were subject to force, meaning pushing, shoving, or physical harm. The British Crime Survey estimated that 13% of women and 9% of men had been subject to domestic violence in the 12 months prior to interview. (p.8). Furthermore, 12.9 million incidents of domestic violence acts had occurred against women in that year. Violence against children In 90% of cases of domestic violence children are in the same room or the next room.(Hughes 1998) In 40% 60% of cases of domestic violence child abuse is also occurring ( Stark Flit craft 1998) The NCH study found 75% of mothers said their children had witnessed domestic violence, 33% had seen their mothers beaten up, 10%had witnessed sexual violence (NCH, 1994). ( Immediate effects of Domestic Violence on Children and Young People A report by the Department of Health concluded that: For many women and their families the effects of domestic violence will be catastrophic, the damage to their physical and psychological wellbeing may be deeply damaging, and on occasions fatal. (Department of Health [DoH] 2000: 12) Victimisation by a parent of a child or young person can lead to the individual becoming so controlled and inhibited that they are unable to make even the simplest decision or act without permission, responding with complete obedience to every order given and every rule imposed. Abuse can encumber every part of their life, leading in cases to suicide seeming like the only escape. Some people express their self-disgust and powerlessness through alcohol or drug abuse, or self-mutilation, exhibiting signs of severe depression and complete dependency on the abuser.(Shipway 2004: 1). Because of the variety of forms which domestic violence can take its difficult for research to cover all areas. For example, there can be negative effects from being an observer. Research by Fantuzzo and Mohr noted this and thus instead of using the term victim used exposure. This was used in the context of the experience of watching or hearing domestic violence; being directly involved; calling police; and the experience of the aftermath of scenes which might include seeing injuries or bruising on a parent and observing maternal depression. (Fantuzzo and Mohr 1999: 22). Work by Hester et al found that childrens responses differ among members of the same family who are witnessing or experiencing the same abuse. They also said that it is hard to discern the impacts of living with domestic violence on children, because some of the consequent behaviours also occur in children experiencing other forms of abuse and neglect. (Hester et al. 2000:44) The following is a list of negative effects taken from Shipway 2004: 117): Secrecy Confusion Fear Mistrustful Blaming themselves Nightmares In addition Hester et al. (2000:44) found that whilst some children have poor social skills others attain a high level of social skills development with an ability to negotiate difficult situations. Childs ability to cope with abuse should never be underestimated; neither should the childs attachment to the abusive parent which, for some, may continue to be strong. (Ibid). Childrens responses to witnessing domestic violence will depend on age, race, class, sex, stage of development, and the support of others.(Womens Aid). Children may feel angry at their mother or father for not protecting them, as well as blaming them for causing the violence. Others may be so concerned about their mothers distress that they keep private their own grief (Saunders, 1995. From Womens Aid). Long Term effects Research by Fantuzzo and Mohr concluded that children who live in violent households are at greater risk of being maladjusted. (Fantuzzoand Mohr 1999: 22.) Some of these problems include: Behaviour Modelling In very young children through to adolescent age, behaviour is often modelled on people who the individual spends significant time with. Piaget in his 1972 publication noted that childrens play behaviour involves modelling on those around them, and eventually to reproducing that behaviour at any given time or place . As children grow up the parent figure becomes a role-model and if an abusive relationship exists then this trust is taken away. In study conducted by American researchers on aggression and violence in adolescent boys, 15 interviewees were asked questions which sought to identify areas for improvement concerning intervention and prevention. Participants disclosed that their aggressive responses to provocation were frequently modelled on responses that they had seen exhibited bothers, particularly those observed among immediate and extended family members. For example, a respondent called Dan said the following about his father: He gets mad too quickly. Hell get aggravated and hell just explode and thats when the fights start. Well argue and then Ill get mad and tell him some stuff and then hell get mad and just start yelling and then like one of us will go after the other, and then were fighting so my mother will try to break it up or call the police. (Ballot et al 2002: 221). Not all interviewees connected their behaviour with their families, however, there were many family interactions which involved aggression and domestic violence. It is perhaps the impact of what children witness that remains with them and encourages them to learn negative behavioural responses more quickly. As Brian explained, When I was younger, I didnt have a very organized family at all, so I looked towards the people on the streets. Thats when it gets you in trouble. Social Integration The abused childs unstable, often dangerous, home environment is likely to limit the childs development of social skills, self-confidence, and experience of positive interactions (Herrenkohl etal., 1995). Taken from Cooper 1999: 10). Children who grow up in a violent, unpredictable family have a `world view in which potential threat is constantly present. The childs ability to play and integrate with others is severely impaired as they are, if you like, watching their back in case of attack. Play is an important medium of self-expression for the young child, especially during the preschool years when language is still developing. It is the way in which children explore the world around them and learn to recognise and understand objects and people. Because play is sensitive to environmental conditions, the childs physical and social environment will either support or limit his or her play opportunities. Unfortunately, when a child is exposed to a chronically violent, abusive, or neglectful home environment, his or her opportunities for play development and play experiences are severely disrupted. (Cooper 1999:10). The physically abused or neglected child is more likely to show delayed language, cognitive, and motor development, and as a consequence, delayed play skills (Ibid). Cooper suggests that the preschool child will internalise the experience of domestic violence, and may view himself or herself as the cause. As a result, the preschool child may act in destructive ways, such as deliberately destroying other childrens games or toys, in order to attract negative attention. (Ibid). A 1989 study by Fagot et al found physically abused preschool childrens free play with peers to be more disruptive, aggressive, and antisocial than the play of other, non-abused children. (Ibid). Fantuzzo found that aggressive play behaviour, and a lack of empathy with fellow children, is likely to further isolate and prevent the abused child from learning appropriate social skills (Davis Fantuzzo, 1989: 227-248). Structure Children living in a dysfunctional family unit where violence occurs will often experience a lack of structure and organisation to their daily lives. The study by Ballot et al found that the boys felt safe in the institution as they had a chance to lead orderly, less chaotic lives than the ones they experienced in their homes and on the streets. (Ballot et al 2002: 17). Every child will cope with exposure to domestic violence in their own unique way. Indeed, many children might at first not appear to have been adversely affected. It is only later, or in certain situations that their inner emotional state might be revealed. Indeed, although there is a varying number of possible negative health and social outcomes for children who have lived in an abusive home, not all children manifest these characteristics in their later life. The young mind can be resilient and adaptable: It is important to remember that some children remain perfectly well-adjusted despite living with abuse and that a majority survive within on clinical or normal levels of functioning. (Millender and Morley1994:4) Results from Primary Research Of the 20 questionnaires handed out to a random sample of respondents, who were asked only to fill out and return the form if they had children. 8 were returned. The results are set out below: 1. Have you ever been in a relationship with someone who has hit you, kicked you, slapped you, punched you, or threatened to hurt you? 2. CURRENTLY? 3. When you were pregnant did anyone ever physically hurt you? 4. Are you in a relationship with someone who yells at you, calls you names, or puts you down? 7 out of 8 women said they had been in a relationship where they were threatened or hurt 3 out of 8 women said they were currently in a violent relationship 6 women who said they had been abused while pregnant, which implies that their children could have been born into a domestically violent household. 6 out of 8 women said they were in an emotionally abusive relationship These statistics for the Fulham area are quite high. Nearly half of respondents said they had experienced prolonged domestic abuse. It would be useful to conduct a further study on another random sample to see if the two sets of results would correlate. Because under half the sample returned the questionnaires it cannot be said to be representative sample of the Fulham area. Nonetheless the findings do give a surprising insight into the lives of black women in London, showing that abuse, in any form, is a regular occurrence in some peoples lives. Furthermore, because these respondents had children its likely that their children have witnessed domestic violence. Future research might look into establishing a comparison study on 20 women who do not have children in an attempt to see whether more cases of abuse occur within relationships where children are present. Questionnaire on teenagers Of the 20 forms which were filled in 9 respondents said they had been involved in or witnessed cases of domestic violence in their lifetime. 1. Have you ever been involved in or witnessed scenes of domestic violence in your family? Was this age 1-5/6-14/15-present? Or all of the above? 2. Were these scenes between your parents/partners? Did they ever directly involve you? Yes: 4 No: 5 3. Were you ever physically hurt during these episodes? Yes: 3 No: 6 4. Were you verbally abused during these episodes? Yes: 9 No: 0 5. How did your experience affect your daily life: 1. Made you shy..2 2. Made you sad.9 3. Made you angry5 4. Made you aggressive towards others3 6. Do you believe your experience to have been detrimental to your ability to enjoy and participate in school? 1. Yes..3 2. No6 2 out of 9 respondents said they had witnessed or experienced domestic abuse throughout their lives. Just under half of respondents said that they were directly involved in scenes of domestic violence and all respondents said they were verbally abused. The highest percentage(100%) said they had felt sad, while just under half felt aggressive towards other people. Interviews The four cases of domestic violence all revealed the problem of domestic violence to be one associated with isolation and taking place within the privacy of the home. All respondents admitted that they believed domestic violence to have negatively affected their children. Particularly poignant were the accounts of children becoming withdrawn, another aggressive, and another blaming her mother. All these findings are consistent with the secondary research presented in the first section of this dissertation. The interviews provided a surprisingly good response. Some people might be reluctant to admit to the presence of violence in their domestic life, especially if it involves their children, in fear of admitting that they are (directly, or indirectly) causing their child to be unhappy. However, all four respondents answered openly and honestly about their experiences. Conclusion This dissertation has looked into a cross section of the population in the Hammersmith and Fulham area of London. Teenagers and women who were known to have experienced abuse were asked questions about their experiences and both reported feelings of sadness and aggression. Random sample of women with children also revealed that nearly half of the population had experienced a domestic violence act of some kind in their lives. The findings were consistent with the secondary research, such as the study by Piaget 1972, and Cooper 1999, both of which found that young children had difficulty in play activities and social integration, both at pre-school and primary level. The study by Ballonet al on aggressive teenagers also correlated with the responses from the questionnaires handed out at the youth centre. It is not possible to say that there are more domestic violence cases in black communities or that they are caused by demographic and stress factors. A study by Richardson et al on the prevalence of domestic violence against women looked for a correlation between demographic factors and domestic violence. They concluded that black women were least likely to have ever experienced domestic violence compared to their white female counterparts.(Richardson et al 2002:274). The interview with the British mother found that the violence she had experienced was mostly verbal and did not involve physical force directed at her. Out of the four women she was the only one still tube with her husband with whom she had fought with. This is not consistent with the secondary research presented at the beginning which suggested that more black women stayed with their spouses in fear of what might happen if they left. Future research might explore the marital status of black women in the Hammersmith and Fulham area and the stability of the family unit. Interviews with more than one member of a family might also be useful in order to gain a different perspective on the same incidents. To conclude, domestic violence appears to have a negative impact on children and young people. Initial responses might be guilt, fear, sleeplessness and a desire to protect their mother. In pre-schoolchildren the learning ability and playfulness is often damaged by the experience of domestic violence. In children of all ages research has shown that behaviour is modelled on what they see around them, and this can lead to anti-social behaviour to peers and strangers. Longer-term effects include an inability to trust other people, withdrawing from social situations, depression, and in worse cases aggression on the streets, and drug and alcohol abuse.

Monday, May 11, 2020

Microevolution Free Essay Example, 750 words

ï » ¿Microevolution Laguna de Manialtepec, is located in southern Mexico, is a melting point for marine species. Temperatures in the islands rise high in the day and drop below optimum levels in the night. In 2015, the area had excessive food for both animal and human consumption. The area was once full of life and provided habitat for numerous organisms. The land iguana is a unique animal found in the surrounding area of Laguna de Manialtepec (Curry&Chang, 12). Land iguanas are herbivorous creatures that complement their diets by eating insects and centipedes. Iguanas rely on cactus fruits and pads as the primary source of food for their survival. Iguanas mature at the age of 8 to 15 years and have adapted to living in dry areas. They eat other fruits and insects and increased cellular activities in the lower abdomen of the animal. In addition to there is assimilated cellulose in the lower part of the intestine. Presence of assimilated cellulose in the lower abdomen of the land ig uanas is crucial. It indicates that the iguana depends on the cellulolytic micro flora in the digestive system of the animal. We will write a custom essay sample on Microevolution or any topic specifically for you Only $17.96 $11.86/pageorder now There is a trend of iguanas with the growth of the normal iguanas in the Laguna de Manialtepec. Over the years, the growth of iguanas increased significantly in the region resulting in the slightly different creature in the habitat. The example shows the theory of Natural selection takes place in an ordinary environment. Natural selection is a progression whereby organisms adapt to the prevailing conditions of a certain environment (Darwin&Quammen, 12). The organisms that survive  in these  change the population of the rest of the species. Change in population results is a result of the change in the iguanas. Charles Darwin's theory of evolution explains the process of evolution in the land iguanas (Curry&Chang, 12). The iguanas are better adapted to the current conditions of 2315. Change in features of the land iguana ensures that they have favorable characteristics to survive in 2315. Competition in the wild is the ultimate solution to surviva l. According to Darwin's theory, natural selection transforms the genetic traits in species (Freedman, 6). In this case, there is an evolution of genetic traits of the land iguana that are vital for the survival. Competition in the wild is the ultimate solution to survival. Animals with unique features survive while those with unwanted features die. Iguanas that could not survive the evolution process had no option but to die. Iguanas had to attach themselves to their parents to protection until they were mature. They adapted to feeding cacti and flowers in the wild. Competition among organisms in the same environment eliminates the weaker generation from the society. Darwin noted that the tortoises in Galapagos Island were distinctive in their particular manner (Freedman, 24). They were very distinct, and individuals could quickly tell the island of origin. There is a close relationship between the land iguanas and the finches. That sets in another theory whose postulation supp orts why land iguanas are dominant in Laguna de Manialtepec, South Mexico (Darwin&Quammen, 12). The choice of food eaten by organisms and the time food takes to reach the gastrointestinal tract of the iguanas is vital in the evolution of the animal. Natural foods are broken down for energy, nitrogen, calcium among other crucial minerals. The system of the iguana's processes high-quality foods. According to Darwin, not all organisms have equal chances in the fight for survival (Darwin&Quammen, 23). The plants that have adapted to the environment are healthy and have a better chance of surviving. The fittest animals survive harsh conditions. Land iguanas reproduce to their full potential and adapt to the conditions of Laguna de Manialtepec. Gene flow is generally the transfer of genes from one population to another (Freedman, 29). The original ancestors of the land iguanas had the adaptation that helped them survive. Their migration had two effects on the population of land iguanas and the host community. Breeding managed to decrease variation in most of the organisms in Laguna de Manialtepec (Gibson&Gibson, 18). Natural selection is a means that explains the theory of modification as theory works. The theory of Charles Darwin is a landmark in the process of evolution. The theory relies on the belief that there is the formation of new and better species from the existing ones. The theory argues that t a dominant allele that influences a trait in an organism development. The influence is on the genetic trait of the organism and affects the growth and development of the organism. In conclusion, genes pass through the generation of animal and plants by reproduction. Successful genetic variations are an advantage when the land iguanas have a high frequency. Diversification of land iguanas limits the potential for future generation. The dominant trait of animals helps them easily survive the evolution. Darwin demonstrated natural selection using the artificial selection of domestic plants and animals (Curry&Chang, 12). Natural selection shapes the behavior of many animals and individuals. In addition to, natural selection selects numerous species in a population. There is evidence that proves the existence of the theories of Darwin. Works Cited Curry, Jennifer, and In-Young Chang. Evolution. Bronx, NY: H.W. Wilson, 2006. Print. Darwin, Charles, and David Quammen. On The Origin Of Species. New York: Sterling, 2008. Print. Freedman, Dave. Natural Selection. New York: Hyperion, 2006. Print. Gibson, J. Phil, and Terri R Gibson. Natural Selection. New York: Chelsea House, 2009. Print

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Minor Prophets Essay - 1142 Words

The Old Testament ends with the Minor Prophets. These prophets provided insight on many issues the Jews were facing. All of the prophets had the same ideas of a warning of impending judgment because of the nations’ sinfulness, the coming judgment, a call for repentance, and a promise of future deliverance of God’s grace. Idolatry, social injustice and religious ritualism are three issues that the prophets emphasized on in their teachings and can be inspired in the minds and hearts of believers today. The prophets’ teachings are just as important today as they were in the past. The teachings about God, the way man lived, social issues, and religious rituals are all relevant in the today’s society. Idolatry is the worship of anything else†¦show more content†¦The society we live in now struggles to focus on God. There are too many other things that have come to replace Him as number one in their lives. If we could focus more on God today, the issues that are prevalent would begin to disappear and we would be able to reap the goodness God promises. Unfortunately, humans continue to stray from God and worship their false idols with their eyes, minds, and hearts. In Jonah 2:8, â€Å"Those who cling to worthless idols turn away from God’s love for them.†, Jonah prayed to God about idolatry when he realized what he had done wrong and how mistaken he was to run from God’s command. The prophet teachings about social injustice come from Amos. Social injustice is the ill treatment to the vulnerable citizens that God calls us to respect and care for. In Leviticus 19: 3-35, God instructs us about respecting our parents, feeding the poor, paying workers on time, upholding justice, not slandering others, respecting the elderly, and honesty in business dealings. Amos preached the coming of judgment against Israel for oppressing their people. The inequality between the rich and the poor were disgraceful to God’s commands. Amos 5: 14-15 states â€Å"Seek good, not evil, that you may live. Then the Lord God Almighty will be with you, just as you say He is. Hate evil, love good; maintain justice in the courts. Perhaps the Lord God Almighty will have mercyShow MoreRelatedIslam vs. Christianity Essay608 Words   |  3 Pagestotally different. In this essay I will compare and contrast many of the facets that make up the worlds largest and most recognized religions, Christianity and Islam. The word Islam means surrender or submission, submission to the will of Allah, the one God. Muslims are those who have submitted themselves. The basic creed of Islam is brief: There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is the Prophet of Allah. Islam teachesRead MoreEssay about The Differences Between Islam and Christianity640 Words   |  3 Pagesthe fundamental areas, while being totally different. In this essay I will compare and contrast many of the facets that make up the worlds largest and most recognized religions, Christianity and Islam. The word Islam means surrender or submission, submission to the will of Allah, the one God. Muslims are those who have submitted themselves. The basic creed of Islam is brief: There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is the Prophet of Allah. Islam teaches that there is one God, the creator andRead MoreProphets from the Old Testament723 Words   |  3 PagesEssay 4: Prophets The Old Testament is finished up with several different lessons that can be learned from the prophet’s teachings. There were twelve different prophets in the Old Testament, who were also known as the Minor Prophets. The Jews were anxious to know who God was, and the Old Testament prophets offered understanding to many disputes. Idolatry, social injustice and religious ritualism are three topics that are highlighted in the prophet’s teachings and impressed upon the hearts of believersRead More Antigone Essay1318 Words   |  6 PagesAntigone Essay In any story or piece of literature, there will always be the main characters to fill the pages with incessant adventure. The characters whose names appear on almost every page and the characters whose actions the story revolves around. However, a story will also always have its minor characters. These are the characters that contribute heavily to the plot, yet arent mentioned quite as often and are underestimated regarding their importance in the story. In the Greek masterpieceRead MoreThe Rise Of Islam, And Its Subsequent Diffusion Across Eurasia1307 Words   |  6 Pagesthey might be (Haghnavaz, 2013). The rise of Islam began circa 613CE, when the Islamic prophet Muhammad, began to spread the word of the revelations God (Allah) gave to him. From the cities of Makkah in the Arabian desert, the message of Islam spread with great speed. Within half a century since the Prophet Muhammad’s death, the message of Islam had risen in 3 continents (Haghnavaz, 2013). The aim of this essay is to discover what factors contributed to the rise of Islam, and its subsequent diffusionRead MoreIslam Change over Time Essay1324 Words   |  6 Pagesfollow the 5 Pillars of Islam. However, throughout the Pre-Islamic, Umayyad, and Abbasid eras, the political structure that governed the societies that followed Islam differed over the years with some minor continuity. The pre-Islamic era lasted from 400 B.C until the revelation of the Prophet Mohammad in 610 C.E. The lack of Islam evidently created a lack of true unity. The basic social unit of the Bedouin was the kin-related clan. Clans were linked to larger tribal groupings, however theseRead MoreA Comparison Of The Tanach And Bible1380 Words   |  6 Pagesin worship, daily living and conduct. While Christianity and Judaism have numerous similarities because of the mother-daughter link, differences still exist. The sacred text for Judaism is the Tanach while for Christianity the Bible is used. This essay will explore the structure of each sacred text, the type of literature is in each canon, authorship of the text and how it is used in daily practice such as food, interpretation of the commandments and how a Torah is used in a synagogue. STRUCTURERead MoreAnalysis Of The Matrix Reveal Neo As A Messiah Figure1670 Words   |  7 Pagesâ€Å"Hallelujah, you are my saviour! My personal Jesus Christ!†- Choi. This essay will analyse how the 1999 movie, ‘The Matrix’ reveal Neo as a messiah figure. Most people argue that it is a Christian sci-fi movie as it portrays the doctrine and the life of Jesus from birth, death, resurrection and ascension through indexical and iconic signs. This movie suggests a juxtaposition between Neo and Jesus Christ as he is being referred to as ‘the one’ through the movie. He is seen as a messiah that wouldRead MoreEssay on Interpreting the Book of Revelations1435 Words   |  6 Pagesare referred to in Revelation 2:15 most likely is a Gnosticism sect in the first century. 2. What is meant by saying that the general religious climate of Asia Minor in the first century was syncretistic? By saying that the general religious climate of Asia Minor in the first century was syncretistic is meant the people in Asia Minor want to keep many religions. Their approach to religion is more religions you have the better you are. 3. What feature in John’s description of the seal judgmentsRead MoreThe Form And Symbolism Of The Church Of Holy Virgin Essay1214 Words   |  5 Pages Course: History 2 Subject: An Essay about the form and symbolism of the Church of Holy virgin in Harat Zuwayla Group Research: Group name: Kalopsia Group Members: Yasmine Ahmed Hesham Aly 15104078 Kamilia Ahmed Hesham Aly 15104077

Physical Beauty to Inner Beauty Free Essays

We are human beings, we need both physical beauty and inner beauty. We are not angels to search only for inner beauty. Also we are not devils to search only for outer beauty. We will write a custom essay sample on Physical Beauty to Inner Beauty or any similar topic only for you Order Now We have eyes, first of all we look at someone physical, but as the time goes by we know the real people whether having inner beauty or not. The three aspects i am going to discuss are respect, confidence and relationship. The three aspects i am going to discuss are respect, confidence and relationship. The are many different between physical beauty and inner beauty and the most important is respect. Inner beauty is responsible for providing the person with more respect and status in society. Also physical beauty play role but if you’re not good with your soul then the outer beauty role remain for less period but if you are good at your soul then you are talked everywhere. We may find a good and charming looking person but unless he or she is not good at soul we can not play a relationship. The other different is to be in confidence. The physical will always attract because of the hormones in our bodies but I also think that people have different ideas of what they are attracted to. But today’s society and cultures play a huge influence on what people should think is attractive but the people that today’s society and culture call beautiful exhibit strong confidence in how they appear, so confidence will play role in it too. The last different is in relationship. When you meet someone for the first time, you will acknowledge their physical beauty first and then after you talk to him/her for quite some time you will acknowledge their inner beauty like their personality, their wit and etc. You might not agree with me on this case because some of you might say that inner beauty is the real beauty. But if you ask people around I bet they will say the same thing. The first trigger will be physical beauty. You can take e. g. from the story of Cinderella. Prince choose chooses Cinderella when he spotted her with beautiful dress and make up nicely not with kitchen uniform, I wonder if the prince will even ask her dance if Cinderella’s wear her apron. The outer beauty will always attract but the inner beauty is what will give relationship long evity. In conclusion, we can say inner beauty has higher meaning on how we look at what is attractive. We should be more interested in the inner beauty first before seeking what is on the outside because beauty open locked doors, many people look for external beauty and they forget about feelings but in the end when the beauty is over, the same doors will be closed How to cite Physical Beauty to Inner Beauty, Essay examples

Beeny Cliff and On Wenlock Edge Essay Example For Students

Beeny Cliff and On Wenlock Edge Essay In both poems : Beeny Cliff (Thomas Hardy) and On Wenlock Edge (A.E.Housman) , the two poets associate the past with the present in different ways. Hardy presents the past by remembering his own experiences. Throughout the poem, the love and relationship with his previous wife is described almost as an unpleasant reminiscence. As if telling a story, he reveals the misery of the unrequited love and the regrets that he has for the past. Whereas in On Wenlock Edge, Housman is standing alone on a hillside, gazing at a landscape. He relates himself to an imagined historical figure, by mentioning things in common in both characters; also contributing his emotions and views that he has at that particular place. I think that the poets expressions are rather personal in both poems. On the whole, the two poems are retrospective, whether it was about their own history, or about the ancient, the one not experienced. Although presented in various ways, it seems that there is a sense of melancholy in both poems. Hardy does this by presenting his language in a depressing tone, though still giving away hints of his affection towards his former wife; whom he had written the poem for. However, Housman gives us a transient feeling; also creating the sense of loneliness throughout the whole poem. He describes the view he has from the hillside, and analyses human beings against the nature around him; using elements such as the wind and the trees of different kinds. Beeny Cliff is a short, simple-structured poem. The five stanzas, each three lines, are numbered with Roman numerals, as if to place them in order. They also act as time indicators to show that the time is moving forward; as out of five, the first three sections are written in the past tense, the other two in the present tense. Similar to the shape, the content of the poem divides into five sections as well. The poem starts with a feeling of deep, mutual love. The romantic theme carries on, though giving some awkward impressions using a difficult choice of vocabulary. Unfortunately, the poem concludes with the death of his wife, and a sense of unhappiness stands out by the constant use of negative language. I think Hardy intentionally does this to separate the individual events in each stanza. Overall, the poem is in an eye-catching shape, and seems as significant as the content presumably is to the poet. Similarly, On Wenlock Edge is a very short poem with five stanzas, each four lines. I think that its shape is very appropriate for a poem about the countryside, as it has a simple shape, divided into neat sections. As with the Beeny Cliff, On Wenlock Edge is also written in the past tense in the first four stanzas, and the last in the present tense. I think Housman does this to start telling of his memory in the past, and then brings it back to the present. Furthermore, the lines are short and only state his individual thoughts without any explanation. I think that Housman does this in order to make the reader focus more on the content as, I think, a lot of understanding is needed; although the poem looks quite straightforward. The rhyme scheme of On Wenlock Edge is also very simple, the ABAB form. Apart from a pair of eye-rhyme, all of the rhymes are very noticeable. The eye-rhyme, hanger and anger looks as if they would rhyme, but does not when spoken aloud. Nevertheless, I think Housman could have done this to emphasise his anger, as the two words would be the same if the h was taken off hanger. .u83cb33376bd605d943752e5f9d0cffe2 , .u83cb33376bd605d943752e5f9d0cffe2 .postImageUrl , .u83cb33376bd605d943752e5f9d0cffe2 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u83cb33376bd605d943752e5f9d0cffe2 , .u83cb33376bd605d943752e5f9d0cffe2:hover , .u83cb33376bd605d943752e5f9d0cffe2:visited , .u83cb33376bd605d943752e5f9d0cffe2:active { border:0!important; } .u83cb33376bd605d943752e5f9d0cffe2 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u83cb33376bd605d943752e5f9d0cffe2 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u83cb33376bd605d943752e5f9d0cffe2:active , .u83cb33376bd605d943752e5f9d0cffe2:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u83cb33376bd605d943752e5f9d0cffe2 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u83cb33376bd605d943752e5f9d0cffe2 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u83cb33376bd605d943752e5f9d0cffe2 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u83cb33376bd605d943752e5f9d0cffe2 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u83cb33376bd605d943752e5f9d0cffe2:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u83cb33376bd605d943752e5f9d0cffe2 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u83cb33376bd605d943752e5f9d0cffe2 .u83cb33376bd605d943752e5f9d0cffe2-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u83cb33376bd605d943752e5f9d0cffe2:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: The poems nothings changed EssayIn this stanza, Housmans feelings stand out, as he expresses his rage on his choice of language as well. In the same stanza, the repetition of the harsh th sounds in words such as through, then, and threshed; this would be the evidence of the emphasis of his emotion. Likewise, Beeny Cliff has an even simpler rhyme scheme. It has an AAA rhyme scheme, the three lines of each stanza rhyming. For example, the first three lines rhyme with an ee sound, and the next stanza rhymes with an ay sound, and so on. This is quite an unusual pattern; however Hardy uses them successfully and makes the rhymes very strong and obvious. I think this rhyme scheme creates a spell-like sense, which would be appropriate for a love poem. In the first line of Beeny Cliff, Hardy starts the poem with the word O. The letter o, as onomatopoeia, is usually attached with an h; however in this case, it indicates that Hardy sighs. At this point, I think Hardy shows this to underline his unhappiness. During the rest of the first stanza, there are several alliterations used, such as loyally loved, the lo repeated. Hardy does this to emphasise the love between the couple in the beginning; as he carries on his telling of the feelings that he had, when he was deeply in love. Moreover, not only does he carry on using a lot of alliterations, but he also uses some assonance. For example, there is the triplet, riding high bright in line 2 of the poem. The I sound, and the word high in the middle creates the sense of height. Hardy intentionally does this to explain his feelings of love. When, he and his wife were in love, Hardy tells us that they felt as though they were high up, above the sky. He mentions nether sky, as if there was another, lower sky below them. Equally, On Wenlock Edge, uses a lot of stylistic devices. One of the obvious ones would be the alliteration, such as forest fleece in line two. I think that Housman places alliteration there in order to emphasise the abundance of trees in the forest. Consonances used in this poem are not as obvious; however they are repeated a few times. The phrase plies the saplings double has a little significance, as it shows the effects of the gale, the main element of the poem. I think the sound ply in both words gives quite a strong impact and helps to visualise the young trees being bent by the winds. Personification is used quite often in both of the poems. In On Wenlock Edge, Housman shows one in the first stanza. the Wrekin heaves. The Wrekin, a hill or a mountain, is described as a moving object. However, this is only used to describe blustery scenery; as the wood, covering the mountain would look as if the mountain is moving. In Beeny Cliff, there is an obvious example, cloud..cloaked. As well as alliteration, personification is used. Hardy uses the phrase the cloud cloaking something in order to give a feeling of uncertainty, in the couples relationship, associating the cloudy weather. I think that both poets use personification in diverse and suitable way.