Saturday, August 31, 2019
Prepared by Jennifer Hust Durand, V. M. & Barlow, D. H. (2009). Essentials of abnormal psychology(5th Ed. ). Belmont, CA. Wadsworth. This book explains abnormal psychology through their the most modern, scientific method for studying the subject. Throughout the text, it will teach you that psychological disorders are rarely caused by a single influence, but rooted in multiple factors: biological, psychological, cultural, social, familial, and even political. Kellner, Robert. Somatization and Hypochondriasis (1985).Praeger Publishers. This journal brought together a wide range of research, presenting new information on the nature of functional somatic symptoms and hypochondriasis. It displays surveys historical and current views on these topics, and explains similar symptoms. Bryant, Richard A. , Ph. D. and Harvey, Allison. G. Ph. D. Acute Stress Disorder: A Handbook of Theory, Assessment, and Treatment. (Jan. 2000). This article outlines techniques to prevent the development of P TSD by identifying and treating those with Acute Stress Disorder.Going on clinical and research experience, they review the underlying issues, and detail the procedures for using cognitive behavior therapy to treat Acute Stress Disorder. Weissman MM, Bruce LM, Leaf PJ: Affective disorders, in Psychiatric Disorders in America: The Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study. Edited by Robins LN, Regier DA. New York, Free Press, 1991, pp 53Ã¢â¬â80 This article describes the development of a brief and easy-to-use screening tool for bipolar spectrum disorder called the Mood Questionnaire.Thornton, Louise Loots: Recovery From Schizophrenia. (2001) This article is a life experience story of Louise Thornton, a mother of three children. Two have been diagnosed with mental illness. Her son, diagnosed with schizoaffective disorder, has been living with the symptoms for over 20 years. Her daughter has a dual diagnosis and severe depression. Erasmus, Susan. , Ford Fessenden for the New York Times: Pr ofile of a Rampage Killer. ,(Nov 2009)Issues related to the manner in which reporters cover acts of explosive, homicidal violence, such as those that occurred in high schools in 2000, are examined, focusing on the technique taken by the staff of the New York Times when they did a story on nine such rampage murders. Topics include the systematic gathering of information, which showed the importance of such factors as mental illness, pre-murder threats, and job loss; and the use of computer software in analyzing the information. Taylor & Francis.Deputy General Counsel, Illinois Department of Mental Health and Developmental Disabilities, Springfield, Illinois,: Journal of Legal Medicine Volume 15, Issue 3 September 1994 , pages 471 Ã¢â¬â 478. The Journal of Legal Medicine is internationally circulated and includes articles and commentaries on topics of interest in legal medicine, health law and policy, professional liability, hospital law, food and drug law, medical legal resear ch and education, the history of legal medicine, and a broad range of other related topics.
Friday, August 30, 2019
Is life fair? This is a question which has always been asked by people from all walks of life since time immemorial. It was always asked by people who have less in life. For people from Africa Ã¢â¬â they who have always been featured in international magazines looking like skeletons wrapped in desiccated skin, life certainly is unfair. They are the people who cannot even eat one whole nutritious meal in one week. They only exist because of the kindness of others. If help comes, then they can eat; if none arrives, they have to forgo eating and patiently wait for another day. They could not even afford to wrap themselves in the flimsiest garment to protect their bodies from the elements. When they get sick Ã¢â¬â which happens very often because of their state of deprivation Ã¢â¬â they cannot get their hands on the simplest medicine because none is available to them. They are supposed to be our brothers and sisters in God who were given free will just like ours. However, in their situation, one could not help asking the question: Are they in any position to exercise their free will? The answer is undoubtedly a resounding NO! How could they when they could not even lift a finger to defend themselves from biting insects? They who have been photographed in an apparently weakened state being watched by waiting vultures preparing to eat their remains as soon as they close their eyes in dying surrender? These unfortunate people of Africa could not be heard asking if life is fair because even their voices have already been swallowed by poverty and deprivation. In spite of their silence, however, nobody can deny that life has indeed been very unfair for these ill-fated, luckless, forgotten children of God. The situation in Africa is by all means extreme. One does not need to cite such severe cases nor go to far-off Africa, however, just to establish that life has never, or could never be fair. There are numerous examples of lifeÃ¢â¬â¢s unfairness right here in the country. Even in America, the unequal distribution of wealth is very evident. There are parents who could barely send their children to school because of poverty. There are high school graduates (in fact majority of them) who choose not to proceed to college because they would rather work and help support their families. Some defenders of the American way of life would often flaunt that this is because jobs are readily available in America. This is merely a smoke screen, however. Who would not aspire to have a college degree if given the opportunity? It is not unknown to everybody that the high-paying jobs are only available to college graduates and holders of master or doctoral degrees. As a result, these people enjoy more of lifeÃ¢â¬â¢s blessings than their fellow citizens who work after high school. Of course, there are student loans available to those who qualify. Unfortunately, this program is not readily available to everybody, aside from the fact that the loan has to be paid with interest some years after graduation. Meanwhile, the family members are already reeling from the effects of poverty. So instead of availing of these student loans and go to college, young people choose to work instead. In the meantime, rich kids go to college, work for their masterÃ¢â¬â¢s degrees and even proceed to the doctoral programs and get as much as five, six, or even ten times higher salaries afterwards. So is life fair in the United States? The picture becomes slightly different when one visits the third world countries. Because college education is comparatively cheaper in such countries, many of the high school graduates could afford to go to college and in fact do so. Unfortunately for them, jobs are not available even to college graduates. Some of the more fortunate find their way to developed countries like the United States and land good-paying jobs. The rest, however, have no other option but to stay at home and basically work for loose change, become underemployed, or even join the ranks of the unemployed despite their diplomas. In such countries, it is usual to find college graduates working as busboys in restaurants, crews in supermarkets, and taxi drivers. Is life, then, fair?
Thursday, August 29, 2019
Primarily, technology allows us to reach the better standard of living. Firstly, we can now adjust our habitat to suit ourselves. For example, when it is too hot, we have fans or air-conditioners to make it cooler. Also, with high technology we can create buildings that can withstand earthquakes. Those buildings have special structures and they are made of supreme materials that can minimize the impacts of earthquakes. Automatic houses represent high-tech as well. Now with a few taps on the panel display people can set up the security alarm and control their houses easily. The second feature which I should mention is that, high technology provides us with better health care. Modern medical devices are playing important roles in healing people. For instance, Ultrasound Diagnostic Scanners assist doctors in diagnosing diseases. More and more people are being cured. Beside, technology also allows us to create new drugs in good quality and quantity. In fact, without technology the mass production in medicine seems impossible. Last but not least, technology has good effects on transportation. Throughout history, transportation has developed a lot; and its developments depend on the developments of technology. In the past, we used horses to travel over long distances, but today we can use vehicles or air planes to move from place to place. In addition, modern vehicles can carry heavy weight that antique conveyances could not. Indeed, we have ships that can load thousand tons weight. Finally, the inventions of television, computer and internet lead us to the new age, the Age of Information Technology. Nowadays, we can communicate over very, very long distances. If I want to know what happen to any country all over the world, for example, I just need to search for the information on the internet. Beside, television provides us with the new ways of communicate, the mixture of language and images. You can broadcast your information in videos, audios and images through telecasting. There is no doubt that technology has made our life easier than it was in the past. With the help of technology, we have no longer worried very much aboutÃ transportation, communication, health care or even about our standard of living. Perhaps with the development of technology in future, we can travel or live in other planets which support better living conditions for human. In conclusion, technology may be the most valuable property of human being.
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
The Role of Cultural Brokers - Research Paper Example The investigator interviewed nurses, doctors, community members, and pharmacy personnel in one of the public healthcare facilities and a neighboring community. Analysis of the results indicated that it is vital to incorporate healthcare brokers into the healthcare systems. Healthcare negotiators review interviews that occurred between clients and healthcare providers. They also analyze the clinical reports and case conferences to infer meaning and refer clients accordingly. Additionally, brokers in the healthcare system mediate the varied viewpoints held by the clients and healthcare providers. Further, they help to bring about the clientsÃ¢â¬â¢ cultural experiences, values, and expectations. In understanding the impacts of the cultural aspect, many organizations and healthcare personnel can offer the best services to their esteemed clients. Despite the challenges facing the cultural brokers, it is of utmost importance to find the means to involve cultural brokers in the delivery o f the healthcare services. It is conclusively paramount to have the healthcare cultural brokers to ensure achievement of goals and missions of the healthcare systems. Cultural brokering refers to the process through which an individual act as an advocate or a link between persons of divergent cultural backgrounds. An active agent displays the acquaintance, sensitivity, and skills of being aware of the cultural influences that affect peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lives. Further, the broker has the appropriate training to act within the profession as an informed go-between (Major & Gooden, 2012). Understanding the concept of cultural brokerage entails a critical look at culture, co-culture, mediation of culture, health culture, and culture broker. For instance, the role of a cultural broker links with aims of cultural competence.Ã Ã
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Animal Assisted Therapy - Research Paper Example In short, wherever people have special needs, someone with creativity and an animal with the proper temperament can probably create an imaginative way to being pets and people together for mutual benefit (Welcome to the World of Animal-Assisted Therapy and Animal-Assisted Activities) Animal Assisted Therapy is gaining popularity at present because of the utility of pet animals in improving health conditions of patients. Ã¢â¬Å"Animal assisted therapy can be defined as the utilization of animals as a therapeutic modality to facilitate healing and rehabilitation of patients with acute or chronic ailmentsÃ¢â¬ (McGuirk, p.6). It is a type of therapy which involves the assistance of an animal in improving the physical, psychological and social wellbeing of a patient. Pet owners have known the health benefit of animals well before the animal therapy was introduced by the medical science. It is not necessary that animal therapy alone may successful in curing chronic diseases; however in c ombination with other therapies like physical and cognitive therapies, animal therapy found to be extremely useful in reducing mental stress, Cholesterol, high blood pressure etc. Animal assisted therapy is suitable for animal lovers. Children often establish deep relationships with pet animals. Apart from improving the physical and mental health, the presence of beloved animal can help children in improving their learning skills, memory, vocabulary, motivation etc. Though it seems possible that the novelty of the experiences themselves cause such improvements in children, therapy animals do provide them with the sort of emotional support humans novelty cannot, leading to improved physical and mental states.Ã The physical interaction with animals or the presence of animals can help children and animal lovers reduce their mental stress. Increased mental stress is the most prominent reason for many of the physical, psychological and social problems faced by children. In many of the cases, children may become problematic when they were unable to get the necessary love and care from the parents and beloved ones. Most of the current parents are professionals and they give more importance to their profession rather than their children. The absence of parents forced children to spend majority of their childhood time with pet animals like dogs, cats, birds etc. Thus many of the children establish deep relationships with pet animals. In some cases, such relationships are even stronger than their relationships with their parents. The presence of loved ones is always providing comfort to a person when he is in critical conditions. Children who loved their pet animals more than anything else may become relaxed in the company of such animals. Human love and animal love are entirely different. Human love in many cases is conditional whereas animal love is unconditional. Animals do not expect anything in return to the love they extend towards their owners. On the other ha nd human always expect something in return for the love they provide to another person. In other words, animals can establish much deeper relationships or love affairs with its owner. In recent years, it has been proven that by owning a pet, or just by being around dogs or other animals, one may enjoy several health benefits. These include: Lower blood pressure, Reduce cholesterol levels, Increase life expectancy, Ease loneliness, Improve communication, Foster trust, Reduce the need for medications by providing a diversion from pain, Improve cognitive functioning, Improve physical conditioning, Decrease stress and anxiety for patients and their families, Provide unconditional acceptance, especially for improving body image, Motivate patient to quicker recovery, Greater risk taking, May be able to alert to an
Human Resources Strategies - Essay Example Job applicants who take on-site interviews without seriously considering the prospective employer emerge to be ethically incorrect. Such candidates in most cases do not attend the interviews or written test as it is a requirement of any organization before employment (Kleiman, 2009). Ethical job applicants are prepared at all times and when unable to attend the interviews or written tests due to an important reason, they always inform their employer well in advance and ask him or her to make another arrangement if possible. Unethical job applicants who only take the on-site interviews knowing very well that they are not considering the organization a potential employer makes the organization to lose both financially and man hours in preparing interviews and written test. Job applicants who engage in unethical behaviors pose a great negative impact to the production of the organization. Such behaviors as laziness hastiness, being late for work and leaving early or not taking responsibilities of the new job seriously gives a strong negative impression to the employer. Candidates of this kind are less productive and do not perform to the standards expected by the employer. As such a conflict is likely to arise between the employer and the employee. This can often lead to organization failure in achieving its goals (Kleiman, 2009). There are job applicants who engage in unethical behavior such as bribery in order to get employed. Job recruiters when confronted by such situations may fail to make rational decision and avoid errors and this ending up in an unfair recruitment. This significantly lowers the reputation and tarnishes the name of the organization. Unethical job applicants may lead to hiring of employees and over staffing due to overoptimistic p rojections. When this projection are not met, unpleasant measures by the organization are employed in order to please the stakeholders and keep in pace with the competitors. These are measures in an attempt to cutback, restructure and downsize the organization are undertaken (Kleiman, 2009). Such an undertaking harms the future recruitment efforts of the organization, as potential employees will develop a perception of job insecurity in the particular organization. Furthermore, over staffing directly leads to underutilization of the talented recruits that leads to dissatisfaction. As such the corporate loyalty of the organization is impacted negatively. Each member of the human resource is therefore faced with the challenge of developing convincing ideas and priorities in trying to come up with the solutions to the problem. Furthermore, unethical job applicants leads to a decrease in morale among the workers in an organization. The middle class managers and those who are actually in volve in bringing the positive change to the organization become pessimistic about the possibility of sustained future change. This way, they start questioning their ability to make reasonable profit to the organization. Such a situation calls for the each member of the human resource to see into ways of totally transforming the organization. The corporate culture, knowledge base, skills level, style of leadership and team orientation would have to undergo change, for all the employees. The human each member of th
Monday, August 26, 2019
Racial Profiling - Assignment Example This study also reveals the role of ethical and moral concepts in suitable decision-making hence showing the importance of making suitable judgment on individual appearances in the society. Introduction A number of modern techniques have been formulated to enhance security within society. Among these methods is racial profiling. This method utilizes various stereotypes in formulating security measures that are utilized in various law enforcing agencies in the country. This method has received acceptance among many developed societies despite raising a number of moral and ethical issues within society. In this study, focus is placed on the interaction between morals, ethics, and law within society. Question one Racial profiling is a matter of both discretion and ethics. First, racial profiling is a product of freedom among individuals. This freedom enables individuals to undertake any activity they deem right. For instance, in some European countries Chinese tenants are ejected from a partments since the proprietors fear that they may infect other individuals with the severe acute respiratory syndrome (Tator & Henry, 2006).This freedom of choice may be misused thus resulting to reintroduction of crimes such as racism in society. Secondly, racial profiling is an ethical issue since it employs various ethical concepts during its decision making stage. For instance, consequential theories in ethics suggest that an action is moral if the number of benefits it generates exceeds the number of shortcomings. Therefore, application of racial profiling techniques in averting crimes such as terrorism is moral (Zack, 2011). Question two According to Boss (2008), racial profiling has a number of ethical and moral dimensions. These dimensions are negative and positive dimensions. Outcomes from racial profiling help to determine whether its dimensions are positive or negative. These dimensions are evaluated using normative, consequential, and deontological and virtue ethics. Ac cording to normative ethics, an action is right or wrong based on the nature of the characters involved. For illustration, a bartender may refuse to sell alcohol to an individual of aboriginal origin based on their rude behavior when drunk. This explains the positive dimension of racial profiling. Muffler (2006) contends that racial profiling has a positive or negative dimension based on the resultant ratio of wrong and rights. Deontological ethics also argue that various choices made when executing racial profiling determine the dimensions of the technique. For instance, undertaking racial profiling to satisfy personal greed is forbidden in deontological ethics since it may result to increased crimes of hate within any society. Question three Harris (2003) contends that individuals in society place judgment on each other based on a number of reasons. These reasons include societal stereotypes, past experiences, personal behavior, and individual appearances. Societal concepts are a major determinant of peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s judgment within any setting. Among these concepts, societal stereotypes influence individual choices when passing judgments. For instance, in some societies individuals of color are viewed as inferior to the Europeans. This may influence the choices made during judgment hence creating a widespread view that individuals with a colored skin are inferior (Tator& Henry, 2006).Personal
Sunday, August 25, 2019
THE GLOBAL BRANDING OF STELLA ARTOIS Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words
THE GLOBAL BRANDING OF STELLA ARTOIS - Case Study Example This number is very low compared to other industries, such as tobacco, liquor, and soft drink industries. Therefore, it would be appropriate for Interbrew to take advantage of this opportunity by developing a global brand and expanding into markets that are unexplored by acquiring brewers in both growing and mature markets. Stella Artois is certainly the best flagship brand for the company. Firstly, it is clear from the case that the brand is doing exceptionally well in the global market. For instance, the global volume of Stella Artois rose by 97 percent between 1992 and 1999, which was remarkable considering the level of competition (Beamish and Goerzen 108). Stella Artois also serves as the best global flagship brand since it has established good reputation in the European market and beyond. According to the case, Stella Artois is seen as the Ã¢â¬Å"European premium lager,Ã¢â¬ which clearly demonstrates how well the beer has been received in the European market. Therefore, as much as Stella Artois has suffered in one way or the other, it still serves as the right flagship brand for the company. InterbrewÃ¢â¬â¢s move to focus its strategies on cities as markets instead of countries has a number of advantages. Firstly, the strategy is beneficial to the company in the sense that it allowed Interbrew the opportunity to offer the right training to its staff. Secondly, the strategy was advantageous since it ensured that Interbrew received wide media coverage. Thirdly, the strategy ensured that Interbrew gained more return on marketing and promotion investment. Additionally, the strategy appeared advantageous to the company since it enabled the company to gain more control over marketing and distribution (Beamish and Goerzen 114). Other advantages associated with the strategy include enhancing brand awareness in the cities. However, the strategy was also associated with a number of disadvantages, including limiting the brand
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Response to Beger, Sturken and Cartwright Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words
Response to Beger, Sturken and Cartwright - Essay Example ," implying that ladies present themselves in the way that they might want to be thought about, an exceptionally latent method for acting, while men only act without intuition as profoundly into what their movements mean and how they are seen. In the article, "Spectatorship," writers Sturken and Cartwright depict in subtle element Spectatorship, Discourse and Power, and Knowledge. The distinction between the "...spectator (the person who looks) and spectatorship (the act of looking)," is the fundamental thought for the spectatorship area. They discuss the "look" and how despite the fact that the terms for observer and spectatorship change, the idea is constantly significant. For talk and power, Sturken and Cartwright portray how, "In innovation, the look is constituted through a relationship of subjects characterized inside and through the talks of establishments." They depict photography as a focal topic of social situations and movements since the nineteenth century. The look is dictated by media and who has the force in any given relationship, for example, a writer over a witness. In the John Berger article, I was somewhat befuddled as to if individuals still view his compositions and notions on men and ladies as substantial in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s pop culture. Does Berger imagine that all men and ladies act inside these rules without variety? In the Sturken and Cartwright article, I was confounded about the look and if the look helps one increase force or if force is now decided before a look happens. Will a look change the movement in force between two individuals? I could not help contradicting John Bergers general stance in his article about the way men and ladies are seen. I believe that there are sorts of men and ladies that demonstration these routes, yet there exist such a huge figure of sorts of individuals and not all men and ladies simply aimlessly act in the ways he depicts. I couldnt help contradicting Sturken and Cartwrights stance on force between people
Friday, August 23, 2019
Summative assignment on Next PLC - Essay Example J D Wetherspoon plc incorporated in the London Stock Exchange is a firm with the operations in the development and management of public houses. Incorporated in the year 1979, the company owns and operates 927 pubs offering food and drinks throughout the United Kingdom (Yahoo. Finance, 2014a).Ã The overall performance of the Wehttherspoon remained improving for the past five years of assessment. The liquidity position of the company is notably low which further declines under the pressure of inventory; while the profitability of the company is the declining as a result of increasing level of costs such as labour cost, marketing expenses and other repair and refurbishment etc (Reuters, 2013). The star year the in the recent most history of the company remained the year 2012 where Wetherspoon notable grew its revenue and profits in the year 2012. The underlying reason for such growth has been Euro 2012 footballÃ tournament and the Diamond Jubilee in which the company opened net of 37 pubs in UK (BBC, 2012a). However, the impact of this event was clearly expected not to be sustained over a period of long term (BBC, 2012b). Despite this fact, the company is expanding its business to sustain the growth. For the purpose, expansion of the retail space of pubs is increasing, and the company has also expanded with a new pub in the Ireland (Yahoo. Finance, 2013). Expansion is widely being financed by debt in addition to the retained earnings (J D Wetherspoon Plc.,2014); hence, affecting the interest coverage ratio. Also, the gap between the EBITDA and EBIT is also increasing as the depreciation and the amortization expenses are increasing. Consistent expansion and rising cost h ave affected the margins within turn is reflected in the ROE OF the company in the year 2013 and onwards (BFN News,2013). For a similar reason, the EPS of the company has also declined. In the view of the capital expenditure that company has been incurring and planning to continue
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Denver Airport bagage system Essay This article discusses the fundamental design difficulties of the fully automated baggage system originally planned for the New Denver Airport, and their implications for airport and airline management. Theory, industrial experience, and the reality at Denver emphasize the difficulty of achieving acceptable standards of performance when novel, complex systems are operating near capacity. United Airlines will thus make the Denver system work by drastically reducing its complexity and performance. Automated baggage systems are risky. Airlines and airports considering their use should assess their design cautiously and far in advance, and install complementary, backup systems from the start. Ref: Ã¢â¬Å"The Baggage System at Denver: Prospects and Lessons,Ã¢â¬ Journal of Air Transport Management, Vol. 1, No. 4, Dec. , pp. 229-236, 1994. The City and County of Denver have built a massive new airport, the New Denver International Airport. It extends over 13,568 hectares (about 53 square miles); has 3 parallel North-South runways, 2 parallel East-West runways, and room for a total of 12 major runways. In many ways the New Denver Airport represents a model of the airport of the future (de Neufville, 1995). At opening, the Airport will have cost about US $ 5 billion including the US $ 685 million contribution of the Federal Government and the over US $ 400 million investment of airlines in fitting out their passenger buildings, catering facilities and cargo centers (US Government Accounting Office, 1994). At the end of 1994, the bonded debt of the municipally owned Denver Airport System was more than US $ 3. 8 billion (City and County of Denver, 1994b). A mechanized baggage system is at the heart of the New Denver Airport, as for all major new airports. In the case of Denver, this was to be something unique: the Integrated Automated Baggage Handling System, originally designed to distribute all baggage -including transfers automatically between check-in, the aircraft and pick-up on arrival. Unfortunately, massive problems plagued this automated baggage system. (See Henderson, 1994, for example. ) Consequently, the New Denver Airport did not open in October 1993 as scheduled. After missing later opening dates in April and May 1994, the Airport seems as of January likely to be open in March 1995. The delay would then be around 16 months. This delay costs the owners a lot. The interest on their bonded debt exceeded US $ 271 million for the single year of 1994 (Deloitte and Touche, 1994). The costs of maintaining the new airport are extra. A commonly accepted estimate of their costs of delay, endorsed verbally by officials in Denver, has been US $ 33 million a month. By March 1995, the delays may thus have cost them around US $ 500 million. A year after the original opening date for the airport, the City and County of Denver borrowed a previously unscheduled US $ 257 million (City and County of Denver, 1994b). This delay is also expensive for the airlines. United Airlines invested about US $ 261 million, and Continental 73 million, in peripheral facilities in anticipation of the 1993 opening (United Airlines, 1993; US Government Accounting Office, 1994). FedEx likewise created a sorting center for around US $ 100 million. By the time the airport opens, the opportunity cost of the idle investments may have cost the airlines around US $ 50 million. Both the airport owners and the airlines will also suffer losses to the extent that the automated baggage system does not deliver the productivity and efficiency that they had bargained for. Airline and airport management can learn much from this unfortunate experience. As indicated by the discussion that follows, the most fundamental problems with the automated baggage system designed for Denver had been predicted by theoretical studies and consulting reports, were avoidable, and should not be repeated. The basic lesson is that automated baggage systems are risky, and therefore that airlines and airports considering automated baggage operations should assess their design and performance cautiously, and should implement them with the insurance of backup systems from the start. Design of the Automated Baggage System The fully automated baggage system originally planned for the New Denver Airport was unique in its complexity, its novel technology, and its anticipated capacity. It was designed to deliver each bag, including transfers, individually from check-in or the unloading of the aircraft to the outward bound aircraft or baggage reclaim. The delivery mechanism consists of about 9 km. (5. 5 miles) of conveyors and over 27 km. (17 miles) of track on which circulate 4000 individual, radio-controlled carts, the so-called destination coded vehicles or DCVs (US Government Accounting Office, 1994). The capacity of each track was supposed to be 60 DCVs per minute, one a second. The essential layout of the automated baggage system at Denver is that conveyor belts feed the central network of DCVs. The bags do not flow continuously from the conveyor belts, however, as they do in traditional systems. Each bag must independently be placed on its exclusive cart, and thus the delivery of the bags from the conveyor belts must be carefully controlled. Furthermore, the conveyor belt can only advance when there is an empty cart onto which the leading bag on the conveyor belt can be placed. The speed at which the conveyor belts can advance and thus the performance of the entire system depends on the rate of delivery of empty carts to each conveyor belt. This is a crucial point, at the root of the deeper difficulties with the original design. The destination of each bag and its individual cart is defined by bar-coded labels, and transmitted by radio to tags (the radio frequency identification or rf ids) on the constantly moving vehicles. The operation of these vehicles is to be entirely controlled by a network of about 150 computers (Myerson, 1994; US Government Accounting Office, 1994). Speed in handling baggage is critical to achieving acceptable boarding and transfer times at Denver, since the distances are much greater those at other airports. The space between the midfield concourses provides for two taxiways (one is standard) between the tails of the aircraft parked at the concourses, and the terminal building in which passengers check-in and pick up their bags is separated from the first concourse by an office block, a garage, and the Customs and Immigration (FIS) facilities. Speed has been considered crucial to the commercial success of the New Denver Airport, which the owners have marketed to the airlines as a highly efficient platform for hubbing operations because of its multiple parallel runways and prospective ability to 1 turn around aircraft flights very rapidly. United Airlines, the dominant airline at Denver, insisted on a rapid baggage handling system before signing its lease with Denver (Flynn, 1994b). The Denver system was thus originally designed to deliver bags much faster than current norms at major airports at up to 38 kmh (24 mph) (US Government Accounting Office, 1994). The maximum delivery time was apparently set at 20 minutes for narrowbody and 30 minutes for widebody aircraft (Leigh Fisher, 1994). The installers are quoted has having planned a design that will allow baggage to be transported anywhere within the terminal within 10 minutes (Airport Support, 1993). Despite the central importance of the automated baggage system, its design was largely an afterthought. This is a common practice, unfortunately. The Denver system was detailed well after the construction of the airport was under way and only about two years before the airport was to open. Being late, the design was thus subject to two important constraints. First, the geometry was tight. The automated system had to fit within the confines of the airport passenger buildings and the underground tunnel connecting the concourses and the terminal; in many instances it was shoe-horned in at considerable inconvenience. Second, the schedule was tight. The system was to be implemented within 21 months, since Denver executed the contract only in January 1992. This schedule precluded extensive simulation or physical testing of the full design. Remarkably, the design of the fully automated baggage system at Denver did not include a meaningful backup system. The planners provided neither a fleet of tugs and carts that could cope with the level of baggage expected, nor even access roads between the check-in facilities and the aircraft. Obvious Problems Highly visible mechanical problems have plagued the automated baggage system at Denver. As shown by television and widely reported in the trade and popular press, the baggage carts have jammed in the tracks, misaligned with the conveyor belts feeding the bags, and mutilated and lost bags (Flynn, 1994; Henderson, 1994; Myerson, 1994). In 1994, United Airlines accounted for well over 60% of the passengers at Denver. Continental Airlines, which was the launch tenant for the New Airport and which used to operate a considerable hub at Denver, has largely canceled this operation: as of November 1994 it closed its crew base in Denver and cut its daily departures to 23 about a tenth of the number offered by United. The airport consultant to the City and County of Denver predicted that by 1995 the United System will account for 90% of the passenger traffic at Denver (Leigh Fisher, 1994). To deal with these difficulties, the contractors are installing additional equipment. For example, more laser readers will reduce the probability of misreading the destination of each bag. More controllers will slow down the carts, reduce misalignments with the conveyors feeding bags, and minimize the momentum that tossed bags off the carts. Overall, solutions to the mechanical problems come at the price of increased costs, reduced performance, and lower cost-effectiveness of the system. Deeper Problem of Reliable Delivery The blatant difficulties with the automated baggage system designed for the New Denver Airport are almost certainly only the tip of the iceberg. There is a deeper, fundamental problem associated with all complex systems of handling baggage, cargo or materials. The more extensive and long-term difficulty is that of reliable delivery times. The fully automated system may never be able to deliver bags consistently within the times and at the capacity originally promised. This difficulty is a consequence of the extreme complexity of its design combined with the variability of the loads. The entire system consists of well over a hundred waiting lines that feed into each other. For example, bags can only be unloaded from the aircraft and put into the system when the unloading conveyor belt is moving, this belt will only advance when there are empty carts on which to place bags, empty carts will only arrive after they have deposited their previous loads and have proceeded through the system, and so on. In short it is a complicated cascade of queues. The patterns of loads on the system are highly variable. These depend on the season, the time of day, the type of aircraft at each gate, the number of passengers on these aircraft, the percentage traveling with skis, etc. , etc. There may be over a thousand reasonable scenarios! Managing a complex network of interacting, fully loaded queues efficiently for any single scenario is complicated. Managing these flows under all the realistic scenarios is exponentially more difficult. Learning how to do this appears to be a major, long-term research project. Both airports, such as Frankfurt am Main, and companies attempting to automate their materials handling, have routinely spent years trying to make their systems work correctly under all circumstances (Auguston, 1994; Zitterstein, 1994). It is not clear that anyone, anywhere, is currently capable of managing a fully automated baggage system one without any backup system or use of tugs and carts for transfers to ensure full capacity, on-time performance, or is likely to be able to do so anytime in the near future (Knill, 1994). Causes of Reliable Delivery Problem Any automated baggage system is subject to risk. The difficulties at Denver are not due to any obvious bad luck or incompetence. On the contrary, the contractor responsible for the installation (BAE Automated Systems) had enjoyed the reputation of being among the best and, on the strength of its good work, has been responsible for most of the major baggage systems recently installed in the United States.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Dementia: Impact of and Support Needs Task 3 A. People with Dementia 3.1.A In your own words explain the differing consequences of an impairment or type of disability in relation to: a. Individual A person with dementia faces a number of different challenges. Apart from the most well known effect of the disease which is gradual memory loss, the most basic of things and or activities are difficult for them to perform. Dementia affects a personÃ¢â¬â¢s mental and physical abilities thus manifesting in a demented personÃ¢â¬â¢s inability to perform activities of daily living in an effective and efficient fashion. Apart from this, a person with dementia also has difficulty with communication. They are not able to effectively communicate what they want to say which often results to frustration and fits of aggressiveness. Furthermore, this also results to poor social interaction with others. They are not able to carry meaningful conversations and they may feel that they are often misunderstood which isolates them and withdraws them from the things which they used to enjoy doing. They may also manifest various behavior changes which they are not aware of. b. The family/whanau Taking care of a dementia person is very difficult- especially if they are your family member. The care and support they need will be permanent which means that it may cause various financial problems for the family. In the later stages of dementia, the client will need professional support which will need more finances from the family. Also, the client will need constant attention and support which may cause stress on the part of the family. They may lose their social life because their time is eaten up by their responsibilities with taking care of the client. Family members may neglect themselves and this may cause various health problems for them. They will be under so much stress and this may most likely lead to burn out. c. The carers The carers face a very challenging task when taking care of a dementia client. They have to make sure that the client is watched over constantly, that the medications are given on time and they also have to consider a lot of safety measures because dementia clients tend to wander throughout the day. Furthermore, taking care of a dementia client is a long term task; thus, this may also lead to high levels of stress and eventually burn out for the carers. Dementia clients may exhibit challenging behaviors and this may frustrate carers. 3.2 A The progression/development of the signs and symptoms (conditions/disease pathway) associated with the specific group chosen. Dementia is not a specific disease. It is a term used for an overall term used for a wide variety of symptoms which are all associated to a progressive loss of memory and or cognitive skills which to an extent affects a personÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to perform normal everyday tasks. This disease is caused by damage in the brain. The slow and ongoing damage to the brain is caused by a build-up of abnormal proteins in the brain. This abnormal build-up is different for various types of dementia Symptoms of dementia usually start slow and gradually get worse which are evident in varying stages of the disease- mild, moderate, severe. At differing extent, clients with dementia experience a progressive deterioration in their cognitive function- to include their memory, cognition, communication and judgment. 3.3.A In your own words discuss the way in which the impairment impacts on the diverse dynamics of the family/whanau A dementia clientÃ¢â¬â¢s family often faces various difficulties. The impairment affects the family dynamics due to the difficulty of looking after a demented member. They will face financial constraints because they would have to pay for medications and support which the client needs. This task also involves a lot of physical efforts, thus it may lead to high levels of stress and burnout. Family activities may be disrupted and the memberÃ¢â¬â¢s social life may be affected because their time will be greatly focused on looking after their family member with dementia. Furthermore, the stress of role reversal is also present- the children who were once taken cared of by their parents now have to step up to the role and take care of them. The way in which the individual, family/whanau and carers interact and respond to evolving stressors a. Individual The client will exhibit more challenging behaviors which may affect their safety. Their forgetfulness may progress and worsen. They may also have more episodes of aggression due to increased frustration from their current situation. They may be irritable throughout the day and be more difficult to handle them. The high levels of stress may also worsen their difficulty in communicating with others. They may find it harder to express their emotions and needs. b. Family/whanau Family members may feel higher levels of stress which may lead to burn out. They may feel that the responsibility is too much for them to handle. Family members may seek the help of other relatives or carers in handling the client. They may experience high anxiety and not be willing to engage in social activities with others. c. Carers The clients may exhibit more challenging behaviors which mean that the task at hand for the carers become more difficult. They will be under higher levels of stress and anxiety. As a result, they may feel burn out and may need some time off from work. Furthermore, they may also seek the help of their other colleagues to handle the client. The way in which the Code of Rights is applied to the specific group of people selected a. Right to be treated with respect- Even if the client is suffering from dementia, he still has to be treated with respect because he is a human being. Carers must always provide privacy when doing their cares and their choices must also be given proper importance. b. Right to freedom from discrimination, coercion, harassment and exploitation- Clients should be treated equally. No matter their race or gender, they should receive equal care and support from their carers. They should also not be coerced to do things which are out of their will. For example, if the client refuses to shower, he must not be given false promises just to comply. Measures should always be taken to make sure that their dignity is maintained at all times. Privacy is very important when doing cares. c. Right to effective communication- It may be difficult to communicate with a client with dementia but it is their right to be communicated to in an effective manner. It is the duty of the carers to make sure that effective ways to communicate with the client is adapted and used when dealing with them. This ensures that their needs and concerns are acknowledged. For example, if the client is slow in picking up things which are said to them, the carer should talk slowly and clearly and if needed, repeat what they are saying to make sure that the client has understood. d. Right to support- Clients have the right to be visited by their families for support. It is actually a big help to them if they are constantly around people who they trust. Families should be permitted to visit the client openly. Contact numbers of family members should be available in order to easily contact them when the client wants to see them. e. Right to services of an appropriate standard- Facilities which house dementia clients must provide the appropriate services which they need. The carers must be trained to handle these types of clients to ensure that the care delivered is appropriate and beneficial. Proper equipment should also be used for clients according to their different needs. For example, if a dementia client needs a walker or a hoist for transfers, carers must make sure that these are used and available for them. -The needs (support and other) which you have identified for the specific group of people selected. People with dementia have a number of different needs. Some of which are the following: Speech and language therapist- to help them in their communicating difficulties. They also need support in doing various activities of daily living such as getting dressed, taking a bath and eating because they often cannot do these themselves. However, it is also important to allow them to do things which they can do for themselves. Occupational therapist to help and encourage them in participating in various activities which helps them improve their social skills. They should also be assisted in engaging in meaningful and positive interaction with other people/residents. Support must also be focused on helping clients maintain their quality of life. Medication management is also important to help control some symptoms or effects of the disease to worsen such as episodes of aggression/anxiety. Their family and carers should also be aware of the support available to them. This can be done by awareness programs and other types of educational support. The people handling them should also be aware of the importance of constant check-ups with their respective doctors in order to be aware of the progression of the disease. 3.4.A References: Alzheimers New Zealand; 2012; Progression of Dementia; retrieved from: http://www.alzheimers.org.nz/about-dementia/progression-of-dementia AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s Association; 2014; What is Dementia?; retrieved from: http://www.alz.org/what-is-dementia.asp AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s Society; 2014; The Progression of Dementia; retrieved from: http://www.alzheimers.org.uk/progression/ AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s Society; 2014; Caring for a Person with Dementia; retrieved from: http://alzheimers.org.uk/Caring_for_someone_with_dementia/ B. People with autism spectrum disorders 3.1.B In your own words explain the differing consequences of an impairment or type of disability in relation to: a. Individual People affected with autism spectrum disorder are often regarded as different from the whole. Although it is not readily admitted, it is inevitable that these clients do face social discrimination at a certain extent especially from people who lack enough knowledge about their disorder. It is often hard for clients to form social bonds because they often behave differently- depending on the type of disorder that they have. Most clients exhibit challenging behaviors such as tantrums, mood swings and aggression. Clients also face a number of physical difficulties. Most conditions under the autism spectrum disorder cause the individual to not be able to perform daily tasks for themselves, making them dependent on family members and carers. b. The family/whanau The family may be under a lot of stress as they take care of a loved one with autism. As mentioned, clients with this disorder often exhibit challenging behavior, thus it can be very tiring and sometimes frustrating to care for them. Family members will have to look after them constantly to ensure their safety and cater to their needs. Financial constraint will also be another problem. Because of the task at hand, family members may neglect themselves and their health. They may focus all their time on the client and forget to live a life of their own. This will affect their social relationships and oftentimes, their work as well. Furthermore, parents may also feel self-blame. They may think that their childÃ¢â¬â¢s condition is their fault. c. The carers The carers will most likely feel stress which may lead to burn out. It is not easy to care for autistic clients. They have to constantly consider safety measures and always help them with various tasks. It will require much patience from carers. However, they may feel frustrated especially during days when clients exhibit challenging behaviors. It will also be a struggle for them to understand what the client needs because most autistic clients have speech impairments. So, the carers should always be sensitive to the needs of the client because they may not be able to voice these out. 3.2.B The progression/development of the signs and symptoms (conditions/disease pathway) associated with the specific group chosen. ASD is a developmental disorder which directly affects a childÃ¢â¬â¢s communication skills, social skills and behavior. The cause of this disease is still unknown but studies show that it may be caused by several factors. Among these factors may be developmental factors and genetic factors. Children with ASD think and behave differently compared to other children. They view the world differently. They find it difficult to speak and understand others when they are spoken to. It is also difficult for them to express themselves through proper body language- they can often be misunderstood. They have poor social skills which causes isolation and withdrawal from other people. Children with ASD also have difficulty thinking and behaving flexibly. They may engage in unusual behavior and sometimes may do things repetitive things. Furthermore, they also experience various developmental delays. 3.3.B In your own words discuss the way in which the impairment impacts on the diverse dynamics of the family/whanau ASD affects the family memberÃ¢â¬â¢s dynamics in different ways. It is clear that having a child with ASD in the family is not easy. They may have to adjust family activities to suit the needs of the client. The family may also face social isolation because other people may not understand what it is like to take care of a child with ASD. Also, since children with ASD are often regarded as different, the family may also experience judgment from other people and this may have a huge impact to their emotional well-being. Family members also face financial problems because so much is required to take care of a child with ASD. Studies also show that parents who have kids affected with ASD are at a greater risk for mental and physical health problems compared to other parents. Furthermore, with all these difficulties, family members are placed under high levels of stress, which may be the reason why their health is often affected. The way in which the individual, family/whanau and carers interact and respond to evolving stressors a. Individual The client may exhibit more challenging behaviors such as flapping and rocking; or something more aggressive such as throwing things or biting. They may also throw tantrums more often making it harder for the people who handle them. The client may also experience high levels of anxiety and or depression due to their current situation; because they may feel that they are not being understood by people around them. b. Family/whanau Family members will experience physical exhaustion. They will be stressed out and this may lead to burnout. They may not be willing to go out and interact in social activities because their time is eaten up by taking care of the client. Because they will be socially isolated, this may lead to depression. Furthermore, due to the high levels of pressure, they may seek the help of other relatives to support them in looking after the client. c. Carers The growing levels of stress will greatly affect carers. They are the ones who will interact with the client most of the time. They have to make sure they always implement adequate safety measures. Their stress may lead to burnout if they are continuously exposed to challenging behavior. As a result, they may be frustrated and appear to be irritable at work. They may also seek the help of other colleagues to assist them. The way in which the Code of Rights is applied to the specific group of people selected a. Right to be treated with respect- Clients must always be treated with respect despite how different they may seem. Clients with ASD are often hard to understand without adequate knowledge of the disease but even then, they should be seen as fellow human beings who have the right to be respected as everyone is. They should not be laughed at and their personal needs should be given importance. When doing cares, privacy should be provided at all times. b. Rights to freedom from discrimination, coercion, harassment and exploitation- Children with ASD may face discrimination from others and this should not be the case. They should not be perceived as of lower standards. They deserve to be treated as every person will be treated. They should also not be talked into doing things which they do not agree with. Furthermore, they have the right to be protected from any form of harassment and exploitation; especially those of the young age, because they cannot perceive if a person is taking advantage of them. c. Right to effective communication- Clients with ASD may be hard to communicate with but they have the right to be communicated to in an effective manner. Thus, it is the carers task to make sure that the communication difficulties of the client is assessed and appropriate strategies is used when interacting with them. This ensures that their needs and concerns are taken cared of. The carer must make sure they talk clearly to the client. They have to be patient and repeat sentences for them if the client has not understood what has been said. d. Right to support- The clients have the right to have support. This may be family or friends or other people who care for them. They should be given the chance to interact with people who they trust. This may lessen their frustrations and episodes of aggression. Family members must also be informed of the importance of their presence and support to the clients. Regular visits should be encouraged. e. Rights in respect of teaching and research- If a client is to be used for a certain study or research, it is important that they consent to it- or that a family member consents to it. It is also important to treat them with respect when talking about their condition. Even if they are to be used as subjects, it is their right to keep their identity if they wish to do so. Normally, this is more ideal. -The needs (support and other) which you have identified for the specific group of people selected. People with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have a number of different needs. Some of which are the following: Speech and language therapist- to help the client improve their speech They should be encouraged to engage in behavior modification programs to help develop positive behavior. Medication management- carers/family members should make sure that their medications are taken on time. They should be cared for in a safe environment. Support people must work towards eliminating possible hazards to the client. They should have regular check ups with their physician to assess the disease progress. Support must be given with regards to various activities of daily living. Clients should also be encouraged to participate in appropriate activities which will help develop their social skills. 3.4.B References: Ministry of Health; 2014; Autism Spectrum Disorder; retrieved from: https://www.health.govt.nz/your-health/conditions-and-treatments/disabilities/autism-spectrum-disorder kidshealth.org.nz; 2005-2014; Autism Spectrum Disorder; retrieved from: http://www.kidshealth.org.nz/autism-spectrum-disorder-asd Autism New Zealand; 2014; About Autism; retrieved from: http://www.autismnz.org.nz/about_autism National Institute of Mental Health; 2014; What is Autism Spectrum Disorder?; retrieved from: http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/autism-spectrum-disorders-asd/index.shtml Nur Anne Piccio; SN:14160101; Ageing and Disability Task3Page 1
Review of American Beauty The 1999 Academy Award winning movie American Beauty has many major plots and shows the reality of American life. This movie uses symbolism to get ideas across in many different situations and it shows the actuality of life, it is not always what it looks like on the outside. Lester and Carolyn Burnham seem like they have a perfect marriage and a perfect family life while in turn they are having a lot of marriage problems. Lester is going through a midlife crisis; he quits his high-paying job for a fast food service job at Mr. SmileyÃ¢â¬â¢s and he buys the car of his dreams. His wife, Carolyn, is so upset by his new Ã¢â¬Å"freedomÃ¢â¬ that she has an affair with one of her colleagues and is caught by Lester when she goes to Mr. SmileyÃ¢â¬â¢s drive thru with her colleague...
Monday, August 19, 2019
Thomas Jefferson: The Man, The Myth, and The Morality Thomas Jefferson was a man of the greatest moral character who has been excoriated routinely over the last 30 years by historical revisionists and presentists. His commitment to America and his vast contributions to the framing of society as it is today are overlooked in favor of base analysis of his character that, while not flawless, is that of a morally upright person who has deeply held convictions and lives by them. Jefferson was born to a prominent family of Virginia tobacco growers. Plantation life is based largely around the work of slaves, so Jefferson was surrounded by them from the time of his birth in 1743 until the day he died. One of the harshest criticisms of Jefferson comes from the fact that, while he vehemently opposed slavery, was indeed a slave owner himself. As historian Douglas L. Wilson points out in his Atlantic Monthly article Ã¢â¬Å"Thomas Jefferson and the Character IssueÃ¢â¬ , the question should be reversed: Ã¢â¬Å"...[T]his was of asking the question... is essentially backward, and reflects the pervasive presentism of our time. Consider, for example, how different the question appears when inverted and framed in more historical terms: How did a man who was born into a slave holding society, whose family and admired friends owned slaves, who inherited a fortune that was dependent on slaves and slave labor, decide at an early age that slavery was morally wrong and forcefully declare that it ought to be abolished?Ã¢â¬ (Wilson 66). Wilson also argues that Jefferson knew that his slaves would be better off working for him than freed in a world where they would be treated with contempt and not given any real freedoms. Another way that Thomas Jefferson shows his moral character is in his most famous achievement, the drafting of the Declaration of Independence. This document is probably the most important document in the history of the United States, and one of the most important in the history of the world. Jefferson writes that Ã¢â¬Å"all men are created equalÃ¢â¬ and argues that every man has the right to Ã¢â¬Å"life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.Ã¢â¬ JeffersonÃ¢â¬â¢s document shows not only his strongly held beliefs in freedom, but his acceptance of and belief in the views of the Age of Reason. He believed himself to be a person who was doing what was morally right, not for the fame that would eventually accompany it. Thomas Jefferson: The Man, The Myth, and The Morality :: History Thomas Jefferson: The Man, The Myth, and The Morality Thomas Jefferson was a man of the greatest moral character who has been excoriated routinely over the last 30 years by historical revisionists and presentists. His commitment to America and his vast contributions to the framing of society as it is today are overlooked in favor of base analysis of his character that, while not flawless, is that of a morally upright person who has deeply held convictions and lives by them. Jefferson was born to a prominent family of Virginia tobacco growers. Plantation life is based largely around the work of slaves, so Jefferson was surrounded by them from the time of his birth in 1743 until the day he died. One of the harshest criticisms of Jefferson comes from the fact that, while he vehemently opposed slavery, was indeed a slave owner himself. As historian Douglas L. Wilson points out in his Atlantic Monthly article Ã¢â¬Å"Thomas Jefferson and the Character IssueÃ¢â¬ , the question should be reversed: Ã¢â¬Å"...[T]his was of asking the question... is essentially backward, and reflects the pervasive presentism of our time. Consider, for example, how different the question appears when inverted and framed in more historical terms: How did a man who was born into a slave holding society, whose family and admired friends owned slaves, who inherited a fortune that was dependent on slaves and slave labor, decide at an early age that slavery was morally wrong and forcefully declare that it ought to be abolished?Ã¢â¬ (Wilson 66). Wilson also argues that Jefferson knew that his slaves would be better off working for him than freed in a world where they would be treated with contempt and not given any real freedoms. Another way that Thomas Jefferson shows his moral character is in his most famous achievement, the drafting of the Declaration of Independence. This document is probably the most important document in the history of the United States, and one of the most important in the history of the world. Jefferson writes that Ã¢â¬Å"all men are created equalÃ¢â¬ and argues that every man has the right to Ã¢â¬Å"life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.Ã¢â¬ JeffersonÃ¢â¬â¢s document shows not only his strongly held beliefs in freedom, but his acceptance of and belief in the views of the Age of Reason. He believed himself to be a person who was doing what was morally right, not for the fame that would eventually accompany it.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
The ability to understand the emotions of others is critical for successful interactions among humans (Dias & Paiva, 2009; Kazemifard, Ghasem-Aghaee, & Ãâ"ren, 2010). The psychological theory of emotional intelligence (EI) proposes four categories of relevant abilities (Mayer & Salovey, 1997): (1) identifying emotions, (2) understanding emotions, (3) using emotions in thought processes, and (4) managing emotions. This research focuses on emotion understanding, the cognitive activity of making inferences using emotional knowledge about why an agent is in an emotional state (e.g., unfair treatment makes an individual angry) and which actions are associated with the emotional state (e.g., an angry individual attacks others). Such emotion understanding in humans develops through their experiences with other agents. How might such learning in humans inform a model to enable artificial emotional agents to develop emotion understanding? Our approach to answering this question proposes a model of emotion understanding that combines psychological theories of episodic and semantic memory with ...
Saturday, August 17, 2019
Ã¢â¬ ¢ Children make a match with mom/parent. This is the reason that consistency is such a key issue in early childhood development. Children feel comfortable with routine because they know what to expect Ã¢â¬ ¢ Children need order. As above, when the environment has inherent structure and order, children feel safe. Children need to feel safe to explore their environment. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Children have an innate desire to learn. Our brains are hard-wired to learn. Children will learn spontaneously. Our role is to facilitate this as much as possible without interfering in the natural learning patterns of each individual child. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Children have a drive for spontaneous activity. Any person who has been near a young child knows this is true. In a Montessori environment, children are free to move about the classroom within the guideline of being respectful to others. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Children must be active to gain self-discipline. When a child chooses a work from a shelf, does the work to the best of their ability and returns the work to the place that they found it. This is a completed work cycle. Adults often marvel at the childÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to focus on a task with such deep concentration. This is because they chose the work. It called to something within the child. No adult, parent or teacher could ever coach this concentration. It is innate within the child. Through the choosing of works and full completion of tasks, the child becomes self-motivated, self-disciplined and self-directed. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Children learn through imitation and trial and error. This was not a new concept even one hundred years ago. However, Montessori utilized the principle. In a Montessori environment, the teacher/guide shows the child how to do the work. She then invites the child to do the exercise. The child may repeat the exercise as many times as they like. The way in which the child does the exercise gives the guide clues abou t the childÃ¢â¬â¢s development. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Children learn best in a multi-sensorial environment. There is a lot of discussion these days concerning what kind of learners we are: i.e. auditory, visual, or kinesthetic. Most of us learn in a variety of ways. Montessori set up a multi-sensorial environment where she utilized didactic materials to Ã¢â¬Å"educate the sensesÃ¢â¬ that were originally designed to test the senses. Montessori children learn to not only look, but see, not only listen but hear. Since all learning comes to us from our senses, this multi-sensorial approach enables children to comprehend at a deeper level. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Children learn best when they get to put their Ã¢â¬Å"hands onÃ¢â¬ the materials. Rather than have a child sit at a desk and be lectured, Montessori felt that children would learn best if they were able to touch and manipulate the materials. This of course combines with the other observations that she made about how children learn. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Children learn best in multi-age group settin gs. Ã¢â¬Å"Gifted and TalentedÃ¢â¬ classrooms are beginning to make use of this model. Montessori noticed that children imitate and learn more easily from older children. Montessori classroom are set up in three-year cycles so that a child will come into a classroom as the younger child and progress to being the older child. As the younger child, they will learn more quickly, trying to emulate and keep up with the older children. As the older child, they become strong leaders. They will learn how to assist the younger child. This not only boosts their self-esteem and self-worth, but also gives them an opportunity to repeat exercises that they have already done and in doing so, gain a deeper understanding. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Children have Ã¢â¬Å"sensitive periodsÃ¢â¬ for learning. Human brains are designed to learn specific things at specific ages. A three-year -old child can become trilingual (by absorbing the languages in their environment) without difficulty. They will be able to keep the languages separate. This is not possible for the adolescent, who must work hard to gain a second language. (Most language programs do not begin until junior high school.) Each Montessori classroom, Infant/Toddler, Primary, Elementary and Adolescent are prepared with developmentally appropriate works. MontessoriÃ¢â¬â¢s observations concerning the Ã¢â¬Å"windows of opportunityÃ¢â¬ for the development specific areas of abilities in language, math, cultural, social, physical continue to be corroborated by brain research. Dr. Montessori recognized that children have specific needs, the need to experience order, independence, movement, language, discipline, love and security. With true cooperation of school and home and a clear understanding of how to meet the childÃ¢â¬â¢ s needs, a healthy child will emerge.
Friday, August 16, 2019
One of the most prominent features of the present century is the progress of science and its effects on almost every aspect of social life. Nowadays, more and more new things invented to make our life more comfortable and convenient. It is difficult for us to point out which inventions changed humanÃ¢â¬â¢s life the most, but in my opinion the three most remarkable inventions changed the world the most are the creations of electricity, aircraft and computer. Firstly, electricity actually becomes necessary in human beingsÃ¢â¬â¢ life, it has contributed much in manufacturing, curing and operating machines. If the power of electricity had never been existed we wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have even a fraction of what we have in the world today. No electricity also means that there is no TVÃ¢â¬â¢s, no computers, no air conditioningÃ¢â¬ ¦ Indeed, we cannot even imagine how we would live in absence of electricity in modern times. In addition, many diseases are treated by electric treatment today. Surgeons will not be able to carry on their instruments and machines without electricity. For example, X-ray machine which enables the doctor to take the photograph of the internal parts of the body can be operated only with its help. This is an industrial era. Many big and heavy machines are used to generate foods, goods, clothesÃ¢â¬ ¦.Nonetheless, such machines works only with the help of electricity. In some progressive countries, like Japan, electric power is used in almost all the factories, a power cut in one day could lead to the deadlock. For this reason, electric power is really useful in production as well as the growth of industries. The second invention I believe that it has great impacts on our social life is the creation of computer. It would actually be difficult to say when the first computer was made but Charles Babbage was the first one to conceptualize it. He called it Ã¢â¬ËThe Analytical EngineÃ¢â¬â¢ though he never could build it. In fact, computer is the extremely important Invention because it helps us to display and save information; this invention is also applied in almost all fields. In olden times, storing information had manyÃ disadvantages. You had to write information on the papers and then store them a certain place. As a matter of fact, the data could be lost after a long time due to old paper, wood-borer Ã¢â¬ ¦. However, today it becomes easier and more convenient with computer. You just type the information you need, save it and it is done. You do not need many shelves to save data anymore. On the other hand, you can edit them as you like and you can save them as many files as you want. PC actually is utilized in almost all fields such as studying, working and entertaining. For instance, people can use computer for presentation, planning a project, playing videogames, watching TV and listening to music. The last but not least is the invention of aircraft. All of us cannot deny the creation of aircraft has changed the way of our traveling. The airplane is not only one of the greatest inventions in the 20th century, but also one of the most wonderful scientific creations of the human history at large. This mean of transport made it possible for people to work in places miles away. The existing of aircraft has turned long and exhausting journeys into a trip completed within hours. Also, the people from divergent parts of the world could travel from one region to the other quickly, thereby exchanging different aspects in social and cultural experiences. It is one of the crucial factors that help business expand to global market. Furthermore, children can attend school in distant countries. In the past, this was impossible. Hence, the children of today are better educated than those of the past. Thanks to the creation of aircraft, human beings became more dynamic, they are able to do business in foreign lands and visit various countries all over the world. Scientific inventions have made this world worth living. They help our life become more comfortable and convenient. And three of the inventions modifying deeply the way we live are the creations of electricity, computer and aircraft. We can sure that these changes will not stop there, these inventions have just built the foundation for the future scientists to create more and more inventions, and we cannot ima gine how our life would change in the next few years.
Thursday, August 15, 2019
Child labor refers to the employment of children at regular and sustained labor. This practice is considered exploitative by many international organizations and is illegal in many countries. Child labor was employed to varying extents through most of history, but entered public dispute with the advent of universal schooling, with changes in working conditions during the industrial revolution, and with the emergence of the concepts of workersÃ¢â¬â¢ and childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights. This definition is from the Wikipedia. Why does this exist? To whom will be the blame be given? Is it the parents, who raised their children to work, or the children themselves who decided to work to overcome hunger and thirst for survival? Is it the government that has to be responsible to this or this is all because of the inevitable poverty we are now experiencing today? For me, I have to blame all because in each problem of the society we encounter, it is not always that it is only a problem of one but rather it is a problem of all. We tend to forget that the ones affected to this kind of problem are also of our kind, Filipinos. We should always remember this statement, Ã¢â¬Å"One for all, and all for one.Ã¢â¬ I have mentioned above that are the parents to blame for this kind of problem. I say yes, a big yes for me. Why? It is simply because the parents are the first people that the child may know and they are the one who nurtures the child. Moreover, the parents are the one responsible if ever their children have nothing to eat and wear for everyday living. The parents in the society are expected to provide all their children needs for the bore them not to be slaves in the family. The parents are expected to give the right to education for their children to earn knowledge and not send them to factories that would bring them sickness just to earn money. But now, all the expected things turned out wrong. Some parents even do not mind if their children are already at the streets asking alms, some are into drugs, and some engage to crimes such as robbery and prostitution. If I were the parent, I had rather just send them to DSWD and see them eating and playing than watching them earn a living at the young age. I do not say that putting the child to DSWD is another irresponsible act the parent had made but it will be the best alternative answer to the problem. Are the children also to blame? I can say that the children have also something to deal with this. Even if the child is only four years old and has no sense of maturity yet, the child has something to play with this. Sometimes, it is the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s decision to work for their families. They are working not because they want to eat, but rather gave the money to their parents, hoping that this money results to something that is good for their stomachs. In some cases, the children also are the ones that decide to leave the family because they see that the family cannot give the happiness they are asking for. So, the children have no choice but to leave independently and find their own living. The worst is that the children may engage into crimes such as killing, stealing, and prostitution. This is really happening in the society today. I can share an experience of one of our maids of our family. I admit that we hired her at her minority age. She was only 15 when she entered our home. After months of working in our house, we had already given her our trust. One day, we invited her to come into our lolaÃ¢â¬â¢s house for the fiesta. She agreed to come rather than staying at home alone, and we wanted her to come because maybe she will be stealing anything from the house without our knowledge. We cannot give all our trust to a certain person right? Anyways, we had the time to go to the beach. The tide was so low that the sea was very far from the shore. Our maid never knew that the water was shallow. The dived and end up with bleeding wounds in her face. We immediately went home to cure her wounds. When we went home to back in Tacloban, she was not feeling easy. I think that the scars in her face made her actions limited and a little bit more conservative. After 3 days after the said incident, she left our house without any permission. We immediately reported this to her parents. Time passed but still no news was heard. We have now a new maid but of legal age. Years passed, and suddenly our roads had crossed each other. I have seen her near the seawall in the city but the thing that stunned me most is that she was already carry with her a child. This story is just one example of what can happen to children in our society. Is the government part of the problem? IÃ¢â¬â¢ll answer this question with a yes again. The government is expected to implement laws for this and make sure that these laws are nationwide followed. The government should play as the provider of the needs that the households cannot provide. It is sometimes reasonable that the government cannot provide them all but at least they will show that they are concerned to this problem. I can see that some policemen maltreat these children. Better if we just leave them alone and just catch them if they are now doing beyond the limitations. IÃ¢â¬â¢m disappointed to those government officials who did not do an effective action to eradicate this problem in our society. I am not an anti-government individual but I guess this is reality. Man is a power-seeker according to Thomas Hobbes so man really has the tendency to retain his power when he is in power and the outcome is that the poor will always be poor. Lastly, the poverty we are facing is the best reason why the children are into this action. Poverty is the reason why the parents cannot send their children to school, where the children are expected to learn and to socialize with our children. Poverty is also the main reason why the parents cannot provide the quality of happiness each child is longing for. The conception of poverty because of overpopulation is quite wrong. It some points it is true that this overpopulation can affect the way of living in a family but what now for China that contribute a big fraction to the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s population. China is a big country in both economy and population. If China can make a difference why cannot we? As a conclusion, I am really against to this kind of problem in the society and besides who are happy watching children working not for themselves but to others. I am really thankful to my parents that I was raised efficiently, providing me anything that could bring to a better outcome. Time will come that I will be a parent. I am hoping that somehow there will be changes in our society that is concerned to this problem. It is still not the end for this. The solution is just there. All are aiming that this can be totally eradicated in the future.
Wednesday, August 14, 2019
Styles and Themes of Samuel Richardson Samuel Richardson wrote his novels using the epistolary novel style, in which all the books are made up of letters. These letters are meant to be written during the time that the stories take place by the main character. They either described a scene or dialogue within the scene (Brophy 245). The stories used the themes of female dominance over the emotions of a man, and male dominance over the physicality of a woman. Also, many women in his stories are put under a great amount of distress, which takes up most of the plot of the novel (Ã¢â¬Å"Richardson CriticismÃ¢â¬ ). Little is known of Richardson's early years beyond the few things that Richardson was willing to share. Although he was not forthcoming with specific events and incidents, he did talk about the origins of his writing ability; Richardson would tell stories to his friends and spent his youth constantly writing letters. One such letter, written when Richardson was almost 11, was directed to a woman in her 50s who was in the habit of constantly criticizing others (Brissenden 2). Ã¢â¬Å"Assuming the style and address of a person in yearsÃ¢â¬ , Richardson cautioned her about her actions. However, his handwriting was used to determine that it was his work, and the woman complained to his mother (Harris 68). The result was, as he explains, that Ã¢â¬Å"my mother chides me for the freedom taken by such a boy with a woman of her yearsÃ¢â¬ but also Ã¢â¬Å"commended my principles, though she censured the liberty taken (Brophy 245). Ã¢â¬ Pamela was immediately and extremely popular with the reading public. Richardson initially also enjoyed critical acclaim and was considered one of the most important English novelists. His contemporaries focused almost exclusively on his moral teachings, and most praised the author for his judgment and honesty. Richardson's stated purpose in his works was moral instruction and thus when his sincerity was eventually questioned, and his work attacked by Fielding in parodies including Shamela, Richardson defended himself with explanations and revisions, particularly in the third edition of Pamela. Fielding ridiculed Pamela's obsession with chastity and her tendency to measure the rewards of virtue in material terms (Harris 87). Fielding's interpretation of Pamela established the opposition between Ã¢â¬Å"PamelistÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"anti-PamelistÃ¢â¬ which has persisted to the present day (Brissenden 32). Richardson's popularity rapidly diminished in the nineteenth-century until he was generally neglected. However, critics would on occasion mention him as historically important for advancing the epistolary form. William Hazlitt perceptively wrote that his works combine the romance of fiction with the Ã¢â¬Å"literal minuteness of a common diary. Ã¢â¬ Twentieth-century critics have emphasized Richardson's concept of self (Brissenden 12). His character's extreme self-awareness can be read at different levels; according to both Richardson and critics, the characters are not as bound to the truth as they continually claim. Elements of Richardson's work have often been praised in spite of their author; critics suggested that the depths of his work were present unconsciously or even by accident (Brissenden 32). Scholar A. D. McKillop argued convincingly to the contrary, that Richardson was a skilled, deliberate craftsman conscious of his work, its layers, and its meanings. Further rehabilitation to Richardson's reputation was gained from W. M. Sale's painstaking bibliographic study and Ian Watt's discussion of background and technique. Richardson is studied today as a psychological novelist and as a social historian for his descriptions and insight in regard to the relationships of the sexes in a patriarchal society, and to sexual themes in general (Brissenden 32).. While working for Wilde, he met a rich gentleman who took an interest in Richardson's writing abilities and the two began to correspond with each other. When the gentleman died a few years later, Richardson lost a potential patron, which delayed his ability to pursue his own writing career. He decided to devote himself completely to his apprenticeship, and he worked his way up to a position as a compositor and a corrector of the shop's printing press. In 1713, Richardson left Wilde to become Ã¢â¬Å"Overseer and Corrector of a Printing-OfficeÃ¢â¬ . This meant that Richardson ran his own shop, but the location of that shop is unknown. It is possible that the shop was located in Staining Lane or may have been jointly run with John Leake in Jewin Street (Brophy 245). In 1719, Richardson was able to take his freedom from being an apprentice and was soon able to afford to set up his own printing shop, which he did after he moved near the Salisbury Court district close to Fleet Street. Although he claimed to business associates that he was working out of the well-known Salisbury Court, his printing shop was more accurately located on the corner of Blue Ball Court and Dorset Street in a house that later became Bell's Building (Brissenden 12). On 23 November 1721 Richardson married Martha Wilde, the daughter of his former employer. The match was Ã¢â¬Å"prompted mainly by prudential considerationsÃ¢â¬ , although Richardson would claim later that there was a strong love-affair between him and Martha. He soon brought her to live with him in the printing shop that served also as his home (Brissenden 14). One of Richardson's first major printing contracts came in June of 1723 when he began to print the bi-weekly The True Briton for Philip Wharton, 1st Duke of Wharton. This was a Jacobite political paper which attacked the government and was soon censored for printing Ã¢â¬Å"common libel (Brophy 245). However, Richardson's name was not on the publication, and he was able to escape any of the negative fallout, although it is possible that Richardson participated in the papers as far as actually authoring one himself. The only lasting effect from the paper would be the incorporation of Wharton's libertine characteristics in the character of Lovelace in Richardson's Clarissa, although Wharton would be only one of many models of libertine behavior that Richardson would find in his life. In 1724, Richardson befriended Thomas Gent, Henry Woodfall, and Arthur Onslow, the latter of those would become the Speaker of the House of Commons (Kinkead-Weekes 667). In 1733, Richardson was granted a contract with the House of Commons, with help from Onslow, to print the Journals of the House. The twenty-six volumes of the work soon improved his business. Later in 1733, he wrote The ApprenticeÃ¢â¬â¢s Vade Mecum, urging young men like him to be diligent and self-denying (Brophy 245). The work was intended to Ã¢â¬Å"create the perfect apprentice. Written in response to the Ã¢â¬Å"epidemic Evils of the present AgeÃ¢â¬ , the text is best known for its condemnation of popular forms of entertainment including theatres, taverns and gambling. The manual targets the apprentice as the focal point for the moral improvement of society, not because he is most susceptible to vice, but because, Richardson suggests, he is more responsive to moral improvement than his social betters. His tota l staff during the 1730s numbered 7, as his first three apprentices were free by 1728, and two of his apprentices, Verren and Smith, died soon into their apprenticeship (Brophy 245). The loss of Verren was particularly devastating to Richardson because Verren was his nephew and his hope for a male heir that would take over the press (Kinkead-Weekes 67). Work continued to improve, and Richardson printed the Daily Journal between 1736 and 1737, and the Daily Gazetteer in 1738. During his time printing the Daily Journal, he was also printer to the Ã¢â¬Å"Society for the Encouragement of LearningÃ¢â¬ , a group that tried to help authors become independent from publishers, but collapsed soon after. In December 1738, Richardson's printing business was successful enough to allow him to lease a house in Fulham. This house, which would be Richardson's residence from 1739 to 1754, was later named Ã¢â¬Å"The GrangeÃ¢â¬ in 1836. In 1739, Richardson was asked by his friends Charles Irvington and John Osborn to write Ã¢â¬Å"a little volume of Letters, in a common style, on such subjects as might be of use to those country readers, who were unable to invite for themselves. Ã¢â¬ While writing this volume, Richardson was inspired to write his first novel (Brophy 245). Richardson made the transition from master printer to novelist on 6 November 1740 with the publication of Pamela: or, Virtue Rewarded. Pamela was sometimes regarded as Ã¢â¬Å"the first English novel. Ã¢â¬ Richardson explained the origins of the work (Brophy 245). In the progress, writing two or three letters to instruct handsome girls, who were obliged to go out to service, as we phrase it, how to avoid the snares that might be laid against their virtue, and hence sprung PamelaÃ¢â¬ ¦ Little did I think, at first, of making one, much less two volumes of itÃ¢â¬ ¦ I thought the story, if written in an easy and natural manner, suitably to the simplicity of it, might possibly introduce a new species of writing, that might possibly turn young people into a course of reading different from the pomp and parade of romance-writing, and dismissing the improbable and marvelous, with which novels generally abound, might tend to promote the cause of religion and virtue (Kinkead-Weekes 47). After Richardson started the work on 10 November 1739, his wife and her friends became so interested in the story that he finished it on 10 January 1740. Pamela Andrews, the heroine of Pamela, represented Ã¢â¬Å"Richardson's insistence upon well-defined feminine rolesÃ¢â¬ and was part of a common fear held during the 18th century that women were Ã¢â¬Å"too bold. Ã¢â¬ In particular, her Ã¢â¬Å"zeal for housewiferyÃ¢â¬ was included as a proper role of women in society. Although Pamela and the title heroine were popular and gave a proper model for how women should act, they inspired Ã¢â¬Å"a storm of anti-PamelasÃ¢â¬ (like Henry Fielding's Shamela and Joseph Andrews) because the character Ã¢â¬Å"perfectly played her part (Brophy 243). Ã¢â¬ Later that year, Richardson printed Rivington and Osborn's book which inspired Pamela under the title of Letters written to and for particular Friends, on the most important Occasions. Directing not only the requisite Style and Forms to be observed in writing Familiar Letters; but how to think and act justly and prudently, in the common Concerns of Human Life. The book contained many anecdotes and lessons on how to live, but Richardson did not care for the work and it was never expanded even though it went into six editions during his life. He went so far as to tell a friend, Ã¢â¬Å"This volume of letters is not worthy of your perusalÃ¢â¬ because they were Ã¢â¬Å"intended for the lower classes of people. In September 1741, a sequel of Pamela called Pamela's Conduct in High Life was published by Ward and Chandler. Although the work lacks the literary merits of the original, Richardson was compelled to publish two more volumes in December 1741 to tell of further exploits of Pamela, the title heroine, while Ã¢â¬Å"in her Exalted Condition. Ã¢â¬ The public's interest in the characters was waning, and this was only furthered by Richardson's focusing on Pamela disc ussing morality, literature, and philosophy. After the failures of the Pamela sequels, Richardson began to compose a new novel. It was not until early 1744 that the content of the plot was known, and this happened when he sent Aaron Hill two chapters to read. In particular, Richardson asked Hill if he could help shorten the chapters because Richardson was worried about the length of the novel. Hill refused, saying, You have formed a style, as much your property as our respect for what you write is, where verbosity becomes a virtue; because, in pictures which you draw with such a skillful negligence, redundancy but conveys resemblance; and to contract the strokes, would be to spoil the likeness (Kunitz 60). In July, Richardson sent Hill a complete Ã¢â¬Å"designÃ¢â¬ of the story, and asked Hill to try again, but Hill responded, Ã¢â¬Å"It is impossible, after the wonders you have shown in Pamela, to question your infallible success in this new, natural, attemptÃ¢â¬ and that Ã¢â¬Å"you must give me leave to be astonished, when you tell me that you have finished it already. Ã¢â¬ However, the novel wasn't complete to Richardson's satisfaction until October 1746. Between 1744 and 1746, Richardson tried to find readers who could help him shorten the work, but his readers wanted to keep the work in its entirety (Kunitz 60). A frustrated Richardson wrote to Edward Young in November 1747: What contentions, what disputes have I involved myself in with my poor Clarissa through my own diffidence, and for want of a will! I wish I had never consulted anybody but Dr. Young, who so kindly vouchsafed me his ear, and sometimes his opinion (Brissenden 32). Richardson did not devote all of his time just to working on his new novel, but was busy printing various works for other authors that he knew. In 1742, he printed the third edition of Daniel's Tour through Great Britain. He filled his new few years with smaller works for his friends until 1748, when Richardson started helping Sarah Fielding and her friend Jane Collier to write novels. By 1748, Richardson was so impressed with Collier that he accepted her as the governess to his daughters (Brophy 243). In 1753, she wrote An Essay on the Art of Ingeniously Tormenting with the help of Sarah Fielding and possibly James Harris or Richardson, and it was Richardson who printed the work (Kunitz 60). But Collier was not the only author to be helped by Richardson, as he printed an edition of Young's Night Thoughts in 1749. By 1748 his novel Clarissa was published in full: two volumes appeared in November 1747, two in April 1748 and three in December 1748. Unlike the novel, the author was not faring well at this time. By August 1748, Richardson was in poor health. He had a sparse diet that consisted mostly of vegetables and drinking vast amount of water, and was not robust enough to prevent the effects of being bled upon the advice of various doctors throughout his life. He was known for Ã¢â¬Å"vague Ã¢â¬Ëstartings' and Ã¢â¬Ëparoxysms'Ã¢â¬ , along with experiencing tremors. Richardson once wrote to a friend that Ã¢â¬Å"my nervous disorders will permit me to write with more impunity than to readÃ¢â¬ and that writing allowed him a Ã¢â¬Å"freedom he could find nowhere else (Brissenden 32). Ã¢â¬ However, his condition did not stop him from continuing to release the final volumes Clarissa after November 1748 (Brophy 243). To Hill he wrote: Ã¢â¬Å"The Whole will make Seven; that is, one more to attend these two. Eight crowded into Seven, by a smaller Type. Ashamed as I am of the Prolixity, I thought I owed the Public Eight Vols. n Quantity for the Price of SevenÃ¢â¬ Richardson later made it up to the public with Ã¢â¬Å"deferred RestorationsÃ¢â¬ of the fourth edition of the novel being printed in larger print with eight volumes and a preface that reads: Ã¢â¬Å"It is proper to observe with regard to the present Edition that it has been thought fit to restore many Passages, and several Letters which were omitted in the former merely for shortening-sa ke (Brophy 243). Ã¢â¬ The response to the novel was positive, and the public began to describe the title heroine as Ã¢â¬Å"divine Clarissa. It was soon considered Richardson's Ã¢â¬Å"masterpiece,Ã¢â¬ his greatest work, and was rapidly translated into French in part or in full, for instance by the Antoine Francois Prevost, as well as into German. In England there was particular emphasis on Richardson's Ã¢â¬Å"natural creativityÃ¢â¬ and his ability to incorporate daily life experience into the novel (Brissenden 32).. However, the final three volumes were delayed, and many of the readers began to Ã¢â¬Å"anticipateÃ¢â¬ the concluding story and some demanded that Richardson write a happy ending. One such advocate of the happy ending was Henry Fielding, who had previously written Joseph Andrews to mock Richardson's Pamela. Although Fielding was originally opposed to Richardson, Fielding supported the original volumes of Clarissa and thought a happy ending would be Ã¢â¬Å"poetical justice (Brissenden 34). Others wanted Lovelace to be reformed and for him and Clarissa to marry, but Richardson would not allow a Ã¢â¬Å"reformed rakeÃ¢â¬ to be her husband, and was unwilling to change the ending. In a postscript to Clarissa, Richardson wrote: If the temporary sufferings of the Virtuous and the Good can be accounted for and justified on Pagan principles, many more and infinitely stronger reasons will occur to a Christian Reader in behalf of what are called unhappy Catastrophes, from a consideration of the doctrine of future rewards; which is everywhere strongly enforced in the History of Clarissa (Brissenden 36). Although few were bothered by the epistolary style, Richardson feels obligated to continue his postscript with a defense of the form based on the success of it in Pamela. However, some did question the propriety of having Lovelace, the villain of the novel, act in such an immoral fashion. The novel avoids glorifying Lovelace, as Carol Flynn puts it, But Richardson still felt the need to respond by writing a pamphlet called Answer to the Letter of a Very Reverend and Worthy Gentleman (Peden 236). In the pamphlet, he defends his characterizations and explains that he took great pains to avoid any glorification of scandalous behavior, unlike the authors of many other novels that rely on characters of such low quality (Brissenden 32).. In 1749, Richardson's female friends started asking him to create a male figure as virtuous as his heroines Ã¢â¬Å"PamelaÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"ClarissaÃ¢â¬ in order to Ã¢â¬Å"give the world his idea of a good man and fine gentleman combined. Ã¢â¬ Although he did not at first agree, he eventually complied, starting work on a book in this vein in June 1750. Near the end of 1751, Richardson sent a draft of the novel The History of Sir Charles Grandison to Mrs. Dunnellon, and the novel was being finalized in the middle of 1752. When the novel was being printed in 1753, Richardson discovered that Irish printers were trying to pirate the work (Brissenden 32).. He immediately fired those he suspected of giving the printers advanced copies of Grandison and relied on multiple London printing firms to help him produce an authentic edition before the pirated version was sold. In Grandison, Richardson was unwilling to risk having a negative response to any Ã¢â¬Å"rakishÃ¢â¬ characteristics that Lovelace embodied and denigrated the immoral characters Ã¢â¬Å"to show those mischievous young admirers of Lovelace once and for all that the rake should be avoided (Brissenden 32). Ã¢â¬ At the same time as he was associating with important figures of the day, Richardson's career as a novelist drew to a close. Grandison was his final novel, and he stopped writing fiction afterwards. However, he was continually prompted by various friends and admirers to continue to write along with suggested topics. Richardson did not like any of the topics, and chose to spend all of his time composing letters to his friends and associates (Peden 236). The only major work that Richardson would write would be A Collection of the Moral and Instruction Sentiments, Maxims, Cautions, and Reflexions, contained in the Histories of Pamela, Clarissa, and Sir Charles Grandison. Although it is possible that this work was inspired by Johnson asking for Ã¢â¬Å"index rerumÃ¢â¬ for RichardsonÃ¢â¬â¢s novels, the Collection contains more of a focus on Ã¢â¬Å"moral and instructiveÃ¢â¬ lessons than the index that Johnson sought. Richardson was a skilled letter writer and his talent traces back to his childhood. Throughout his whole life, he would constantly write to his various associates (Peden 236). Richardson had a Ã¢â¬Å"faithÃ¢â¬ in the act of letter writing, and believed that letters could be used to accurately portray character traits. He quickly adopted the epistolary novel form, which granted him Ã¢â¬Å"the tools, the space, and the freedom to develop distinctly different characters speaking directly to the reader. Ã¢â¬ The characters of Pamela, Clarissa, and Grandison are revealed in a personal way, with the first two using the epistolary form for Ã¢â¬Å"dramaticÃ¢â¬ purposes, and the last for Ã¢â¬Å"celebratoryÃ¢â¬ purposes (Peden 236). In his first novel, Pamela, he explored the various complexities of the title character's life, and the letters allow the reader to witness her develop and progress over time. The novel was an experiment, but it allowed Richardson to create a complex heroine through a series of her letters. When Richardson wrote Clarissa, he had more experience in the form and expanded the letter writing to four different correspondents, which created a complex system of characters encouraging each other to grow and develop over time (Kunitz 60). However, the villain of the story, Lovelace, is also involved in the letter writing, and this leads to tragedy (Brissenden 32). Leo Braudy described the benefits of the epistolary form of Clarissa as, Ã¢â¬Å"Language can work: letters can be ways to communicate and justify. Ã¢â¬ By the time Richardson writes Grandison, he transforms the letter writing from telling of personal insights and explaining feelings into a means for people to communicate their thoughts on the actions of others and for the public to celebrate virtue. The letters are no longer written for a few people, but are passed along in order for all to see (Brophy 243). Works Cited Brissenden, R. F. Ã¢â¬Å"Samuel Richardson. Ã¢â¬ British Writers. Ed. Ian Scott-Kilvert. Vol. 3. New York: Scribner, 1987. Print. Brophy, Elizabeth Bergen. Samuel Richardson: The Triumph of Craft. Knoxville: U of Tennessee P, 1974. Print. Eaves, T. C. Duncan, and Ben D. Kimpel. Samuel Richardson: a Biography. Oxford: Clarendon, 1971. Print. Harris, Jocelyn. Samuel Richardson. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1987. Print. Kearney, A. M. Samuel Richardson. London, Routledge & K. Paul: Northumberland Limited, 1968. Print. Kinkead-Weekes, Mark. Introduction. Pamela. By Samuel Richardson. Vol. 1. London: J. M. Dent & Sons, 1962. Print. Ã¢â¬â. Samuel Richardson: Dramatic Novelist. Ithaca, NY: Cornell UP, 1973. Print. Kunitz, Stanley J. , and Howard Haycraft, eds. Ã¢â¬Å"Samuel Richardson. Ã¢â¬ British Authors Before 1800: A Biographical Dictionary. New York: H. Wilson, 1952. Print. Peden, William. Ã¢â¬Å"Samuel Richardson. Ã¢â¬ Critical Survey of Long Fiction. Ed. Carl E. Rollyson. Vol. 6. Pasadena, CA: Salem, 2000. Print. Ã¢â¬Å"Samuel Richardson Criticism. Ã¢â¬ ENotes Ã¢â¬â Literature Study Guides,